The Coptic church recognizes seven canonical sacraments: confirmation, the Eucharist, repentance, unction of the sick, Matrimony, and holy orders. These sacraments, which are rites ordained by Christ, are outward and visible signs of inward and spiritual grace. Though not enumerated together in the New Testament, they are mentioned separately in various passages.
From the apostolic age, the early fathers’ writings conveyed testimonies of the practice of these sacraments in all Christian churches. Despite their own distinctive ritual, all apostolic churches are in full agreement regarding the number of sacraments. The Coptic church believes that sacraments are valid in themselves, irrespective of the condition of the recipient. Accordingly, the church prescribes the administration of baptism, confirmation, and communion to children, in spite of their inability to profess their faith in accepting the sacraments.
- Habib Jirjis. Al-Sakhrah al-Urthudhuksiyah (The Orthodox Rock). Cairo, 1948.
- . Asrar al-Kanisah al-Sab‘ah (The Seven Sacraments of the Church), 2nd ed. Cairo, 1950.
- Leeming, B. Principles of Sacramental Theology. London, 1956. Mika’il Mina. ‘Ilm al-Lahut (The Study of Theology), Vol. 2. Cairo, 1936.