and Reprobation

Every coin has a flip side. There is also a flip side to the of election. Election refers to only one aspect of the broader question of predestination. The other side of the coin is the question of reprobation. God declared that He loved Jacob but hated Esau. How are we to understand this reference to hatred?

is double. The only way to avoid the of double is to either affirm that God predestinates everybody to election or that He predestinates no one to either election or reprobation. Since the Bible clearly teaches predestination to election and denies universal salvation, we must conclude that predestination is double. It includes both election and reprobation. Double predestination is unavoidable if we take seriously. What is crucial, however, is how double is understood.

Some have viewed double as a matter of equal causation, where God is equally responsible for causing the reprobate not to believe as He is for causing the elect to believe. We call this a positive-positive view of predestination.

The Reformed view of double follows a positive-negative schema. In the case of the elect, God intervenes to positively and actively work in their souls and bring them to saving faith. He unilaterally regenerates the elect and insures their salvation. In the case of the reprobate, He does not work in them or prevent them from coming to faith. Rather, He passes over them, leaving them to their own sinful devices. In this view, there is no symmetry of action. God’s activity is asymmetrical between the elect and the reprobate. There is, however, a kind of equal ultimacy. The reprobate, who are passed over by God, are ultimately doomed, and their damnation is as certain and sure as the ultimate salvation of the elect.

In what sense did God “hate” Esau? Two different explanations are offered to solve this problem. The first explains it by defining hate not as a negative passion directed toward Esau but as simply the absence of redemptive love. That God “loved” Jacob simply means that He made Jacob the recipient of His unmerited grace. He gave Jacob a benefit that Jacob did not deserve. Esau did not receive the same benefit and in that sense was hated by God.

The first explanation sounds a bit like special pleading to get God off the hook for hating somebody. The second explanation gives more strength to the word hate. It says simply that God did in fact hate Esau. Esau was odious in the sight of God. There was nothing in Esau for God to love. Esau was a vessel fit for destruction and worthy of God’s wrath and holy hatred. Let the reader decide.


  1. is double; it has two sides to it.
  2. The Reformed view of double reflects a positive-negative schema.
  3. God passively, not actively, hardened Pharaoh’s heart.
  4. God hated Esau in the sense of failing to give him a blessing of or in the sense of abhorring him as a vessel fit for destruction.