Maximus The Confessor


A who fought against monothelitism; he died in 662. At least three of his works were translated into in the high Middle Ages: the 400 Chapters on Charity (Clavis Graeca, 7693), the 200 Theological and Ecumenical Chapters (Clavis Graeca, 7694), and his discussion with Pyrrhus (Clavis Graeca, 7698), translated by ‘Abdallah ibn al-Fadl al-Antaki in the first half of the eleventh century. Other works of his probably exist in in the Sinai collection or elsewhere (Graf, 1944, Vol. 1, p. 372, no. 3).

Probably because of his theological attitude, was not very widely read among the Copts. Al-Mu’taman ibn al-‘Assal does not mention him in the bibliography he inserted into the first chapter of his Theologiae, composed around 1265, nor does Abu al- IBN in Chapter 7 of his Lamp of Darkness, completed around 1320.

Nevertheless, a Coptic manuscript dated 21 A.M. 1008/17 December A.D. 1291 contains the 200 Theological and Ecumenical Chapters (PG 90, cols. 1084-1176; Clavis Graeca, 7694). This is at the Coptic Patriarchate, Cairo (Theology 245, Graf, no. 398, Simaykah, no. 451, fols. 76b-98b). However, the manuscript is incomplete, containing only eighty-two chapters according to Graf, or all 100 according to Simaykah, from the first hundred; and forty-three according to Graf, or fifty-two according to Simaykah, from the second hundred. The name of the translator, most probably a Melchite, is not given.


  • Graf, G. de manuscrits arabes chrétiens conserveœ au Caire. Vatican City, 1934.