JULIAN (d. after 518)
A bishop of Halicarnassus who was a leader of MONOPHYSITISM. Because he was opposed to the orthodox view of the nature of Christ declared at the Council of CHALCEDON, Julian was deposed from his see in Halicarnassus (modern Bodrum, Turkey) and fled to Alexandria, a center of monophysitism. There he became the leader of the religious party known to its opponents as Julianists, or Aphthartodocetae (supporters of the doctrine of incorruptibility, aphtharsia, of the body of Christ), or Phantasiastae (supporters of the teaching of a merely phenomenal body of Christ). In fact, Julian taught that the body of Christ “was free of corruption from the moment of union” rather than from the Resurrection only.
In the days of His flesh Christ was free from the “corruption” that infected all flesh; for as the Son of Man, he was homoousios (consubstantial) with Adam before the Fall, not with man in his present fallen state. Inevitably, this doctrine seemed to suggest analogies with the DOCETISM of an earlier century, a heretical view that the humanity of Christ, especially His body, was “apparent” rather than real. Julian was refuted by other opponents of Chalcedon, notably the moderate Monophysite SEVERUS, patriarch of Antioch, against whom Julian wrote four works. A large series of fragments of these in Syriac and Greek have survived. Some of his letters also have been recovered.
- Bardenhewer, O. Geschichte der altchristlichen Literatur, Vol. 5, pp. 2-6. Repr. Darmstadt, 1962.
- Draguet, R. Julien d’Halicarnasse et sa controverse avec Sévère d’Antioche sur l’incorruptibilité du Christ. Louvain, 1924. Fragments in Syriac and Greek.
- . “Pièces de polémique antijulianiste.” Le Muséon 44 (1931):255-317; 54 (1941):59-89.
- Jugie, M. “Julien d’Halicarnasse et Sévère d’Antioche.” Echos d’Orient 24 (1925):129-66, 256-85.
- Sanda, A., ed. Severi Antijulianistica. Beirut, 1931.
MARTINIANO PELLEGRINO RONCAGLIA