He was probably selected from the ancient Monastery of Saint Antony (DAYR ANBA ANTUNIYUS) in the Eastern Desert by the Red Sea. He was a contemporary of three Ottoman sultans, ‘Uthman II (1618-1620), Mustafa I (1620-1623), and Murad IV (1623-1640). Because he lived in one of the darkest ages in Egyptian history, it is difficult to uncover specific information about his activities beyond the conduct of the religious life of the community.
- Hanotaux, G., ed. Histoire de la nation égyptienne, 7 vols. Paris, 1931-1940.
- Meinardus, O. Christian Egypt: Ancient and Modern. Cairo, 1977.