JOHN OF

A fifth-century who was the chief supporter of , , in the controversy over the nature of Christ. To resolve the controversy, which set against Saint , , II ordered the to be convened in 431. The council, under the presidency of Cyril, was inaugurated 22 June, before the arrival of the Syrian under the leadership of , the main sympathizer with .

By the time the Syrian delegation reached , the council had already approved the doctrine of the Virgin as , condemned Nestorianism (which opposed the doctrine), and deposed Nestorius. Consequently, John of Antioch, together with his Syrian bishops and a number of other dissenting bishops, convened a rival council that confirmed Nestorius and his teaching and excommunicated Cyril. But their decisions were never sanctioned by the imperial authority, and the problem between John and Cyril remained unsolved until 433, when a compromise was reached whereby Nestorianism was finally rejected and the Theotokos accepted. John died in 441.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

  • Chadwick, H. The Early Church, pp. 194-200. Harmondsworth, 1967.
  • D’Alès, A. Le Dogme d’Ephèse. Paris, 1931.
  • Fliche, A., and V. Martin, eds. Histoire de l’église, 4, pp. 163-96. Paris, 1939.
  • Frend, W. H. C. The , 1-49. Cambridge, 1972.
  • Hefele, C. J., and H. Leclercq. Histoire des conciles, 2, pt. 1, pp. 287-377. Paris, 1908.
  • Kraatz, W., ed. Coptic Acts of Council of Ephesus. Texte und Untersuchungen 26, no. 2. Leipzig, 1904.

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