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Ibn Hawqal - Coptic Wiki

Abu al- Muhammad al-Nasibi (d. 988) was an Arab traveler who seems to have visited Nubia and the Sudan in 955. He later wrote a book based on his travels, of which two versions survive: an earlier version called al- Masalik wa-al-Mamalik (Book of Ideologies and Countries), and a revised version called Surat al-Ard (Book of the of the Earth).

His description of the Christian Nubian kingdoms is relatively brief, and on that account is of less value than is the work of IBN SALIM AL-ASWANI. However, is unique among medieval writers in having visited the kingdom of ‘ in person. His most valuable and detailed information pertains to the BEJA TRIBES of the Sudan, in whose territory he apparently traveled extensively.


  • Kramers, J. H., and G. Wiet, trans. La Configuration de la terre. Paris, 1965.
  • Miquel, A. “Ibn Hawkal.” In Encyclopedia of Islam, Vol. 3, pp. 786-88. Leiden, 1971.
  • Vantini, G. The Excavations at Faras: A Contribution to the History of Christian Nubia, pp. 74-79. Bologna, 1970.
  • . Oriental Concerning Nubia, pp. 149-70. and Warsaw, 1975.