(NHC II, 2)

A collection of 114 “secret sayings” attributed to Jesus, said to have been written down by Didymos Thomas. The is completely preserved only in Coptic, but three copies of a version are represented by Greek papyrus fragments found at Oxyrhynchus. Some of the sayings have parallels in the canonical gospels, but most do not. It is possible that some of the sayings represent an Aramaic sayings tradition that is very early, though the as we now have it represents a later mystical type of Christianity at home in eastern Syria, for which Thomas, Jesus “twin,” is the chief authority.

The original eschatological teaching of is thoroughly de-eschatologized in the . Some scholars hold that the was composed in Syriac, but no version is extant. As the Oxyrhynchus fragments attest, the Gospel of Thomas was brought to Egypt sometime during the second century. Some of the sayings also have parallels in apocryphal gospels composed in Alexandria, the Gospel of the Hebrews and the Gospel of the Egyptians (not the same as the Nag Hammadi tractate of the same title).
A likely date of composition for the (whether composed in or Syriac) is around 140.