The abarkah is prepared from dried grapes or raisins. After being washed with water, they are placed in an earthenware pot and covered with water. The raisins are then left to soak for three days, after which they are taken out and squeezed by hand (never trampled by foot), and the juice is poured into vessels that are not completely filled in order to allow for fermentation. The juice is left for forty days, after which it is fit for sacramental use. The longer the juice is allowed to remain, the better is the wine. Sometimes a little wine from a former brew is added to each bottle of new wine. The procedure is the same when fresh grapes are used instead of raisins.
- Burmester, O. H. E. The Egyptian or Coptic Church, 82. Cairo, 1967.
- Butler, A. J. The Ancient Coptic Churches of Egypt, 2, pp. 281-82. Oxford, 1884.
- Drower, E. S. Water into Wine, 64. London, 1956.
- King, A. A. The Rites of Eastern Christendom, 1, p. 406. Rome, 1947.
- Worrell, W. H. Coptic Texts, 329. Ann Arbor, Mich., 1942.