This monastery was mentioned in the beginning of the thirteenth century by ABU SALIH THE ARMENIAN (1895, p. 177), who spoke of a dedicated to called Dayr al-Ahmar (Red Monastery). He added that it was on the edge of the Nile and that it contained a church dedicated to Saints AND DAMIAN. He situated this church at Tamuh. It is probably the same church, given the rarity of the dedication. It was restored at a period earlier than Abu Salih. The author clearly distinguished it from the great synagogue of the Jews, which was also situated at Tamuh.

Al-MAQRIZI (1853, Vol. 2, p. 504) spoke of the monastery of Saints and at Tamuh and equally of the synagogue of the at the same place.

Unfortunately, the of Tamuh no longer exists. There is, though, a of Saints and in the region, at Manyal Shihah (Clarke, 1912, p. 205, no. 6). This Dayr al-Ahmar then was at Manyal Shihah. This identification was proposed by J. Muyser (1952, p. 179, n. 15). Ramzi advanced the same hypothesis (1953-1968, Vol. 2, pt. 3, pp. 20-21).


  • Clarke, S. in the Nile Valley. London, 1912. Muyser, J. “Un ‘Psali’ copte pour la première heure du Samedi de la joie.” Le Muséon 65 (1952):175-84.
  • Ramzi,  M.  Al-Qamus  al-Jughrafi  lil-Bilad  al  Misriyyah,  3  vols. Cairo, 1953-1968.