Dates And Succession Of Patriarchs

DATES AND SUCCESSION OF PATRIARCHS

Significant dates in the lives of notable persons from the past, particularly from the ancient past, are often a matter of conjecture. In some cases a paucity of historical source material makes it impossible to determine when particular events took place, and in other instances discrepancies in the sources that are extant make such a determination frustratingly tenuous. Since such uncertainty is a feature of the biographical data available for many of the Coptic patriarchs, the following list can give only the approximate dates for some of these leaders. For the period up to 1243 the table relies solely on the History of the Patriarchs compiled by Sawirus ibn al- Muqaffa‘. Supplementary sections of subsequent writers and editors provide the dates for the remaining patriarchs.

Writers following other sources will give dates for some of the patriarchs that vary slightly from those listed below. Thus, some discrepancy in patriarchs’ dates may be found within The Coptic Encyclopedia.

In the list below the provenance of each patriarch has been designated in a separate column, and the rulers of Egypt during each patriarchal reign have been listed in another column. The list has been classified into sections representing the main historical periods:

Greco-Roman and Byzantine, medieval Arab, modern, and contemporary. Full biographies of all patriarchs have been included in the body of our alphabetized text, save in the case of the present patriarch, whose dates are recorded but whose life critique has to be deferred until after the end of his tenure for an objective evaluation of his total work and service.

Greco-Roman and Byzantine Period

1.

Mark

43-68

Alexandria

Nero

54-68

2.

Anianus

68-85

Alexandria

Nero

Galba

Otho

54-68

68-69

69

 

 

 

 

Vitellius

Vespasian Titus Domitian

69

69-79

79-81

81-96

3.

Abilius

85-98

Alexandria

Domitian

81-96

4.

 

5.

Cerdon

 

Primus

98-109

 

109-122

Alexandria

 

unknown

Nerva

Trajan

Trajan

96-98

98-117

98-117

6.

Justus

122-130

unknown

Hadrian

117-138

7.

 

8.

Eumenius

 

Marcianus

130-142

 

143-154

unknown

 

unknown

Hadrian

Antonius Pius

Antonius Pius

117-138

138-161

138-161

9.

Celadion

157-167

unknown

Antonius Pius

138-161

10.

 

11.

Agrippinus

 

Julian

167-180

 

180-189

unknown

 

unknown

Marcus

Aurelius

Marcus

161-180

 

161-180

 

 

 

 

Aurelius

Commodus

 

180-192

12.

Demetrius I

189-231

unknown

Commodus

Pertinax

180-192

193

 

 

 

 

Didius

193

 

 

 

 

Julianus

Septimius Severus Caracalla

 

193-211

 

211-217

 

 

 

 

Marcinus

Heliogabalus Alexander Severus

217-218

218-222

222-235

13.

Heraclas

231-247

unknown

Alexander

Severus

Maximinus

222-235

 

235-238

 

 

 

 

Bulbinus and

Pupienus

Gordianus III

238

 

238-244

 

14.

 

Dionysius

 

247-264

 

unknown

Philippus

Philippus

244-249

244-249

 

 

 

 

15.

 

 

 

 

Maximus

 

 

 

 

264-282

 

 

 

 

unknown

Decius

Gallus Valerianus Gallienus Gallienus

249-251

251-253

253-260

260-268

260-268

 

 

Claudius II Aurelianus

268-270

270-275

 

 

 

16.

 

 

 

Theonas

 

 

 

282-300

 

 

 

unknown

Tacitus

Florianus Probus Carus

275-276

276

276-282

282-283

 

 

17.

 

 

Peter I

 

 

300-311

 

 

unknown

Numerianus

Diocletian

Diocletian

283-284

284-305

284-305

 

 

 

 

Galerius

305-310

18.

 

19.

Achillas

 

Alexander I

311-312

 

312-326

unknown

 

unknown

Galerius

Licinius

Licinius

305-310

308-324

308-324

 

20.

 

Athanasius I

 

326-373

 

unknown

Constantine I

Constantine I

306-337

306-337

 

 

 

 

Constantius II

Julian

Jovian

337-361

361-363

363-364

 

21.

 

Peter II

 

373-380

 

unknown

Valens

Valens

364-378

364-378

 

 

22.

 

 

Timothy I

 

 

380-385

 

 

unknown

Gratian

Valentinian II Theodosius

375-383

375-392

379-395

23.

 

 

24.

Theophilus

 

 

Cyril I

385-412

 

 

412-444

unknown

 

 

Anba Maqar

Theodosius

Arcadius Theodosius II Theodosius II

379-395

395-408

408-450

408-450

25.

 

26.

Dioscorus I

 

Timothy Aelurus

444-458

 

458-480

unknown

 

unknown

Theodosius II

Marcian

Marcian

408-450

450-457

450-457

 

II “The Cat”

 

 

 

Leo I

 

457-474

 

27.

 

Peter III

 

480-488

 

unknown

Zeno

Zeno

474-491

474-491

 

(Mongus)

 

 

 

 

28.

 

29.

Athanasius II

 

John I

488-494

 

494-503

unknown

 

Anba Maqar

Zeno

Anastasius

Anastasius

474-491

491-518

491-518

30.

John II

503-515

al-Zujaj (Enaton)

Anastasius

491-518

31.

 

32.

Dioscorus II

 

Timothy III

515-517

 

517-535

unknown

 

unknown

Anastasius

Justin I Justin I

491-518

518-527

518-527

 

 

 

 

Justinian

527-565

33.

 

34.

Theodosius I

 

Peter IV

535-567

 

567-569

 

 

al-Zujaj (Enaton)

Justinian

Justin II Justin II

527-565

565-578

565-578

35.

Damian

569-605

Tabur

Abu Yuhannis

Justin II

Tiberius II

565-578

578-582

 

 

Maurice

Phocas

582-602

602-610

36.

 

37.

Anastasius

 

Andronicus

605-616

 

616-622

unknown

 

unknown

Phocas

Heraclius

Heraclius

602-610

610-634

610-634

           

 

Medieval Arab Period

38.

Benjamin I

622-661

Qibriyus

Heraclius

‘Umar

610-634

634-644

 

 

 

 

39.

 

 

 

 

Agathon

 

 

 

 

661-677

 

 

 

 

Alexandria

‘Uthman

‘Ali

al-Hasan b. ‘Ali Mu‘awiyah I Mu‘awiyah I

644-656

656-661

661

661-681

661-681

40.

John III

677-686

Anba Maqar

Yazid I

Muawiyah II Marwan I

680-683

683

684-685

 

41.

 

Isaac

 

686-689

 

Anba Maqar

‘Abd-al-Malik

‘Abd-al-Malik

685-705

685-705

42.

 

43.

Simon I

 

Alexander II

689-701

 

705-730

al-Zujaj

(Enaton)

al-Zujaj

‘Abd-al-Malik

 

‘Abd-al-Malik

685-705

 

685-705

 

 

 

(Enaton)

 

al-Walid ibn ‘Abd

 

705-715

 

 

 

 

al-Malik

Sulayman

 

715-717

 

 

 

 

‘Umar ibn ‘Abd al-

Aziz

Yazid II

717-720

 

720-724

 

44.

 

Cosmas I

 

730-731

 

Anba Maqar

Hisham

Hisham

724-743

724-743

45.

 

46.

Theodorus

 

Kha’il I

731-743

 

744-767

Tamnurah

(Mareotis) Anba Maqar

Hisham

 

al-Walid ibn Yazid

724-743

 

743-744

 

 

 

 

Yazid III

744

 

 

 

 

47.

 

 

 

 

Mina I

 

 

 

 

767-774

 

 

 

 

Anba Maqar

Ibrahim

Marwan II al-Saffah al-Mansur al-Mansur

744

744-750

750-754

754-775

754-775

 

48.

 

John IV

 

775-799

 

Anba Maqar

al-Mahdi

al-Mahdi

775-785

775-785

 

 

49.

 

 

Mark II

 

 

799-819

 

 

Anba Maqar

al-Hadi

Harun al-Rashid

Harun al-Rashid

785-786

786-809

786-809

 

 

 

 

al-Amin

al-Ma’mun

809-813

813-833

 

 

50.

Jacob

819-830

Anba Maqar

al-Ma’mun

813-833

51.

Simon II

830

Anba Maqar

al-Ma’mun

813-833

52.

 

 

 

53.

Yusab I

 

 

 

Kha’il II

830-849

 

 

 

849-851

Anba Maqar

 

 

 

Abu

al-Ma’mun

al-Mu‘tasim al-Wathiq

al-Mutawakkil al-Mutawakkil

813-833

833-842

842-847

847-861

847-861

 

54.

 

Cosmas II

 

851-858

Yuhannis

Anba Maqar

 

al-Mutawakkil

 

847-861

55.

Shenute I

858-880

Anba Maqar

al-Mutawakkil

847-861

 

 

 

 

 

56.

 

 

 

 

 

Kha’il III

 

 

 

 

 

880-907

 

 

 

 

 

Anba Maqar

al-Muntasir

al-Musta‘in al-Mu‘tazz al-Muhtadi

Ahmad ibn Tulun

Ahmad ibn Tulun

861-862

862-866

866-869

869-870

870-884

870-884

 

 

 

 

Khumarawayh

Jaysh ibn

884-896

896

 

 

 

 

Khumarawayh

Harun ibn Khumarawayh Shayban ibn

 

896-904

 

904

 

 

 

 

Ahmad

al-Muktafi

 

904-908

 

57.

 

Gabriel I

 

909-920

 

Anba Maqar

al-Muqtadir

al-Muqtadir

908-932

908-932

58.

Cosmas III

920-932

unknown

al-Muqtadir

908-932

59.

 

 

 

 

60.

Macarius I

 

 

 

 

Theophanes

932-952

 

 

 

 

952-956

Anba Maqar

 

 

 

 

Anba Maqar

al-Muhtadi

al-Radi

al-Ikhshid

Abu al-Qasim

Unujur

Abu al-Qasim

932-934

935

936-946

946-960

 

946-960

 

61.

 

Mina II

 

956-974

 

Anba Maqar

Unujur

Abu al-Qasim

 

946-960

 

 

 

 

Unujur

Abu al-Hasan ‘Ali

 

960-966

 

 

 

 

62.

 

 

 

 

Abraham

 

 

 

 

975-978

 

 

 

 

Layman

Kafur

Abu al-Fawaris ibn

‘Ali

al-Mu‘izz al-Mu‘izz

966-968

968-969

 

972-975

972-975

 

 

 

 

al-Aziz

975-996

63.

 

64.

Philotheus

 

Zacharias

979-1003

 

1004-1032

Anba Maqar

 

unknown

al-Aziz

al-Hakim al-Hakim

975-996

996-1021

996-1021

 

65.

 

Shenute II

 

1032-1046

 

Anba Maqar

al-Zahir

al-Zahir

1021-1035

1021-1035

 

 

al-Mustansir Abu

Tamim

1035-1094

66.

Christodoulus

1047-1077

al-Baramus

al-Mustansir

1035-1094

67.

Cyril II

1078-1092

Anba Maqar

al-Mustansir

1035-1094

68.

 

 

69.

Mikha’il IV

 

 

Macarius II

1092-1102

 

 

1102-1128

Anba Maqar

Sinjar

 

Anba Maqar

al-Mustansir

al-Musta‘li al-‘Amir

al-‘Amir

1035-1094

1094-1101

1101-1130

1101-1130

70.

Gabriel II

1131-1145

Layman

al-Hafiz

1130-1149

71.

Mikha’il V

1145-1146

Anba Maqar

al-Hafiz

1130-1149

72.

John V

1147-1167

Abu

Yuhannis

al-Hafiz

 

al-Zafir

1130-1149

 

1149-1154

 

 

73.

 

 

Mark III

 

 

1167-1189

 

 

Layman

al-Fa’iz

al-‘Adid al-‘Adid

1154-1160

1160-1171

1160-1171

 

74.

 

John VI

 

1189-1216

 

Layman

Salah al-Din

Salah al-Din

1171-1193

1171-1193

 

 

 

 

al-‘Aziz ‘Imad al-

Din

al-Mansur Muhammad al-‘Adil

1193-1198

 

1198-1200

 

1200-1218

75.

Cyril ibn

Laqlaq III

1235-1243

unknown

al-Kamil

 

al-‘Adil II

1218-1238

 

1238-1239

 

 

 

 

al-Salih Najm al-

1239-1249

 

76.

 

Athanasius III

 

1250-1261

 

Anba Maqar

Din

Shajarat al-Durr

 

1250-1252

 

 

 

 

 

77.

 

 

 

 

 

John VII

 

 

 

 

 

1262-1268

 

 

 

 

 

unknown

‘Izz al-Din Aybak

al-Mansur Nur al- Din ‘Ali

Sayf al-Din Qutuz al-Zahir Baybars

al-Zahir Baybars

1252-1257

1257-1259

 

1259-1260

1260-1277

1260-1277

 

78.

 

Gabriel III

1271-1293

1268-1271

unknown

unknown

 

al-Zahir Baybars

 

1260-1277

 

 

 

 

79.

 

 

 

 

Theodosius II

 

 

 

 

1294-1300

 

 

 

 

Abu Fanah

Barakah Khan

Salamish

Qalawun

al-Ashraf Khalil al-Nasir

1277-1279

1279

1279-1290

1290-1293

1294

 

 

 

 

Muhammad

 

 

 

 

 

al-‘Adil Kitbugha

Husam al-Din

Lajin

al-Nasir

Muhammad

1294-1926

1296-1299

 

1299-1309

 

80.

John VIII

1300-1320

Shahran

al-Nasir

Muhammad

1299-1309

 

 

 

81.

 

 

 

John IX

 

 

 

1320-1327

 

 

 

unknown

Baybars-Jashankir

al-Nasir Muhammad al-Nasir

1309-1310

1310-1341

 

1310-1341

 

82.

 

Benjamin II

 

1327-1339

 

Jabal Turah

Muhammad

al-Nasir

 

1310-1341

 

83.

 

Peter V

 

1304-1348

 

Anba Maqar

Muhammad

al-Din Abu Bakr

 

1341

 

 

 

 

al-Ashraf Kujuk

1342

 

 

 

 

al-Nasir Ahmad

al-Salih Isma‘il

al-Kamil Sha‘ban

1342

1342-1345

1346

 

 

84.

 

 

Mark IV

 

 

1349-1363

 

 

Shahran

al-Muzaffar Hajji

al-Nasir Hasan al-Nasir Hasan

1347

1347-1351

1347-1351

 

 

 

 

Salih Salah al-Din

1351-1354

 

 

 

85.

 

 

 

John X

 

 

 

1363-1369

 

 

 

unknown

al-Nasir Hasan

al-Mansur S Muhammad

al-Ashraf Sha‘ban

1354-1361

1361-1363

 

1363-1377

86.

 

87.

Gabriel IV

 

Matthew I

1370-1378

 

1378-1409

al-Muharraq

 

al-Muharraq

al-Ashraf Sha‘ban

‘Ala al-Din ‘Ali al-Mansur

1363-1377

1377-1381

1377-1381

 

 

 

 

al-Salih al-Din

Hajji

1382

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

88.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gabriel V

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1409-1427

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Qalamun

Barquq

Salah Hajji

Barquq

al-Nasir Faraj

al-Mansur ‘Abd al-

‘Aziz

al-Nasir Faraj al-Nasir Faraj

1383-1389

1389-1390

1390-1398

1398-1405

1405

 

1406-1412

1406-1412

 

 

 

 

al-‘Adil Musta‘in

al-Mu’ayyad Shaykh al- Muzaffar Ahmad

1412

 

1412-1421

 

1421

 

 

 

 

Sayf al-Din Tatar

Nasir al-Din

Muhammad

1421

1421-1422

 

89.

 

John XI

 

1427-1452

 

unknown

al-Ashraf Barsbay

al-Ashraf Barsbay

1422-1438

1422-1438

 

 

 

 

Jamal al-Din

Yusuf

Jaqmaq

1438

 

1438-1453

 

 

90.

Matthew II

1452-1465

al-Muharraq

Jaqmaq

Fakhr al-Din

1438-1453

1453

 

 

 

 

‘Uthman

Sayf al-Din Inal

 

1453-1460

 

 

 

 

91.

 

 

 

 

Gabriel VI

 

 

 

 

1466-1475

 

 

 

 

Antuniyus

Shihab al-Din

Ahmad

Sayf al-Din Khushqadam Sayf al-Din

1460

 

1460-1467

 

1460-1467

 

 

 

 

Khushqadam

 

 

 

 

 

Sayf al-Din Yalbay

1467

 

 

92.

 

 

Mikhal VI

 

 

1476-1478

 

 

unknown

Timurbugha

Qa’itbay

Qa’itbay

1467

1468-1495

1468-1495

 

Modern Period (1500-1798)

94.

John XIII

1484-1524

al-Muharraq

Qa’itbay

al-Nasir Muhammad

1468-1495

1495-1498

 

 

 

 

 

 

95.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gabriel VII

 

 

 

 

 

 

1525-1568

 

 

 

 

 

 

Suryan

al-Zahir Qansuh

al-Ashraf Janbalat Qansuh al-Ghuri Tuman-bay

Selim I Sulayman I Sulayman I

1498-1499

1499-1500

1500-1516

1516-1517

1512-1520

1520-1566

1522-1566

 

 

 

 

Selim II

1566-1574

96.

 

97.

John XIV

 

Gabriel VIII

1570-1585

 

1586-1601

al-Baramus

 

Bishoi

Selim II

Murad III Murad III

1566-1574

1574-1595

1574-1595

 

98.

 

Mark V

 

1602-1618

 

Anba Maqar

Muhammad III

Ahmad I

1595-1603

1603-1617

 

 

99.

 

 

John XV

 

 

1619-1634

 

 

Antuniyus

Mustafa I

‘Uthman II

‘Uthman II

1617-1618

1618-1620

1618-1620

 

 

100.

 

 

Matthew III

 

 

1634-1649

 

 

al-Baramus

Mustafa I

Murad IV Murad IV

1620-1623

1623-1640

1623-1640

 

101.

 

Mark VI

 

1650-1660

Anba Maqar

Antuniyus

Ibrahim I

Ibrahim I

1640-1648

1640-1648

 

102.

 

Matthew IV

 

1660-1675

 

al-Baramus

Muhammad IV

Muhammad IV

1648-1687

1648-1687

103.

John XVI

1676-1718

Antuniyus

Muhammad IV

1648-1687

 

 

 

 

104.

 

 

 

 

Peter VI

 

 

 

 

1718-1726

 

 

 

 

Antuniyus

Sulayman II

Ahmad II Mustafa II Ahmad III Ahmad III

1687-1691

1691-1695

1695-1703

1703-1730

1703-1730

 

 

105.

John XVII

1726-1745

Antuniyus- Bula

Ahmad III Mahmud I

1703-1730

1730-1754

106.

 

 

107.

Mark VII

 

 

John XVIII

1745-1769

 

 

1769-1796

Antuniyus

 

 

Antuniyus

Mahmud I

‘Uthman III Mustafa III Mustafa III

1730-1754

1754-1757

1757-1774

1757-1774

 

 

 

 

‘Abd al-Hamid I

Salim III

1774-1789

1789-1805

 

Contemporary Period (1798 to the present)

 

108.

 

109.

Mark VIII

 

Peter VII

1796-1809

 

1809-1852

Antuniyus

 

Antuniyus

Salim III Muhammad ‘Ali Muhammad ‘Ali

1789-1805

1805-1848

1805-1848

 

 

110.

 

 

Cyril IV

 

 

1854-1861

 

 

Antuniyus

Ibrahim

‘Abbas I

‘Abbas I

1848

1848-1854

1848-1854

 

 

 

 

Sa‘id

1854-1863

111.

 

112.

Demetrius II

 

Cyril V

1862-1870

 

1874-1927

Anba Maqar

 

al-Baramus

Sa‘id

Isma‘il

Isma‘il

1854-1863

1863-1882

1863-1882

 

 

 

 

113.

 

 

 

 

John XIX

 

 

 

 

1928-1942

 

 

 

 

al-Baramus

Tawfiq

‘Abbas II Husayn Kamil Fouad

Fouad

1882-1892

1892-1914

1914-1917

1917-1936

1917-1936

 

 

 

 

Farouk

1936-1952

114.

Macarius III

1944-1945

Bishoi

Farouk

1936-1952

115.

 

 

116.

Yusab II

 

 

Cyril VI

1946-1956

 

 

1959-1971

Antuniyus

 

 

al-Baramus

Farouk

Muhammad Najib Jamal ‘Abd al-Naser Jamal ‘Abd al-Naser

1936-1952

1952-1954

1954-1970

1954-1970

 

117.

 

Shenouda III

 

1971-

 

Suryan

Anwar al-Sadat

Anwar al-Sadat

1970-1981

 

 

 

 

Husni Mubarak

1981-

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

  • Kamil Salih Nakhlah. Kitab Tarikh wa-Jadawil Batarikat al- Iskandariyyah. Cairo, 1943. This work contains most references to the ancient original lists of the patriarchs and their dates compiled from older manuscripts by a number of writers, mainly medieval. These are preserved in manuscripts in the Patriarchal Library and the Library of the Coptic Museum, Cairo. The main compilations used by Nakhlah include the works of al-Safi ibn al-‘Assal, Abu Shakir ibn al-Rahib, Abu al-Barakat ibn Kabar, Sawirus ibn al- Muqaffa‘, and Yusab, bishop of Fuwwah, all medieval (eleventh to fourteenth centuries). All use the Anno Martyri calendar, which is quoted by Nakhlah. We have converted these dates to the Anno Domini (Gregorian) calendar and based our own compilation on the History of the Patriarchs by Sawirus ibn al-Muqaffa‘ (eleventh century). Modern dates have also been adopted from later writers of the new sections of the same history.
  • Bacharach, Jere L. A Middle East Studies Handbook. Seattle and London, 1984. Gives Islamic history and chronology.
  • Meinardus, O. F. A. Christian Egypt: Ancient and Modern. Cairo, 1972.
  • Sawirus ibn al-Muqaffa‘. History of the Patriarchs of the Coptic Church of Alexandria, Vol. 1. In Patrologia Orientalis, 4 vols. Arabic text edited with English translation by B. T. A. Evetts. Paris 1904-1915. From Saint Mark to Yusab I. Continuation of History, published by the Society of Coptic Archeology, is as follows:
  • Yassa ‘Abd al-Masih and O. H. E. Burmester, eds.
  • Cairo, 1943. Kha’il II to Shenute I.
  • Atiya, A. S.; Yassa ‘Abd al-Masih; and O. H. E. Burmester, eds.
  • Cairo, 1948. Kha’il III to Shenute II. .
  • Cairo, 1959. Christodoulos to Michael IV.
  • Khater, A., and O. H. E. Burmester, eds.
  • Cairo, 1968. Macarius II to John V.
  • . Cairo, 1970. Mark III to John VI.
  • . Cairo, 1970. Cyril II to Cyril V.
  • . Cairo, 1974. Cyril III ibn Laqlaq.

AZIZ S. ATIYA

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