I. Saint and patriarch

was the 24th patriarch of Alexandria (412-444). He was the nephew of his predecessor, Patriarch Theophilus. Part of his “Life” survives in Coptic and the entire “Life” was translated into Arabic in the History of the Patriarchs. He studied in Alexandria and he may have spent a few years in Scetis. He was elected to the patriarchate soon after the death of his uncle.

was a prolific writer, writing commentaries on the of John, Luke, and Matthew, the Epistles to the Romans, Corinthians, and Hebrews, as well as commentaries on the minor prophets, the Pentateuch, and the Book of Isaiah. Unfortunately, only a few works of his corpus have been translated into English and published. also wrote dogmatic works against Arianism, such as the Thesaurus and Dialogue on the . But his main contribution was against Nestorianism, where he played a pivotal role in the movement to affirm the title of Theotokos (God-Bearer). was also a good bishop and pastor.

In Coptic we possess part of the Twelve Anathemas from a manuscript of the , a homily on penitence, a homily on the time of death, a homily on the Apocalypse, a homily on the three young men in the furnace, a homily on St. Athanasius, a fragment of the , his first festal letter, a homily on the Virgin Mary, a homily on the Nativity, a dialogue with Deacon Anthemus and Stephen, and some letters, attributed to St. Cyril. The Egyptian liturgy of St. Mark is also attributed to St. Cyril. It seems that played an important role in revising this liturgy.

GAWDAT GABRA