Copto-Arabic Synaxarion

COPTO-ARABIC SYNAXARION

A list of saints used in the Coptic church

Editions of the Synaxarion

This book, which has become a liturgical book, is very important for the history of the Coptic church. It appears in two forms: the recension from Lower Egypt, which is the quasi-official book of the Coptic church from Alexandria to Aswan, and the recension from Upper Egypt. Egypt has long preserved this separation into two Egypts, Upper and Lower, and this division was translated into daily life through different usages, and in particular through different religious books.

This book is the result of various endeavors, of which the Synaxarion itself speaks, for it mentions different usages here or there. It poses several questions that we cannot answer with any certainty: Who compiled the Synaxarion, and who was the first to take the initiative? Who made the final revision, and where was it done? It seems evident that the intention was to compile this book for the Coptic church in imitation of the Greek list of saints, and that the author or authors drew their inspiration from that work, for several notices are obviously taken from the Synaxarion called that of Constantinople.

The reader may have recourse to several editions or translations, each of which has its advantages and its disadvantages. Let us take them in chronological order.

The oldest translation (German) is that of the great German Arabist F. Wüstenfeld, who produced the edition with a German translation of part of al-Maqrizi’s Khitat, concerning the Coptic church, under the title Macrizi’s Geschichte der Copten (Göttingen, 1845). He also translated the Synaxarion (without including the Arabic text), but only the first half-year appeared, under the title Synaxarium, das ist Heiligen-Kalender der coptischen Christen (2 vols., Gotha, 1879). He had prepared the second part of the year, but the manuscript remained in the library in Göttingen. Wüstenfeld translated only a single Arabic manuscript in Gotha, dating from 1826 and representing only the recension from Lower Egypt.

R. Graffin’s Patrologia Orientalis published the Synaxarion in several fascicles with a French translation, under the title Le Synaxaire arabe-jacobite (rédaction copte). Begun in 1904, it was completed in 1929, after the death of its author, R. Basset. It represents a great step forward for our knowledge of the history of the Coptic community, but unfortunately the author, well versed in the Arabic language of the Muslims, was completely unaware of the peculiarities of the language of the Christians of Egypt. Also, misinterpretations are not lacking, to the point that the reader may wonder if Basset had employed a ghost writer. In 1905 the Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium collection—at that time in competition—brought out the Synaxarium alexandrinum, with a Latin translation.

While the Patrologia Orientalis edition was based on two manuscripts from the Bibliothèque nationale in Paris, one dated by codicologists to the fourteenth century and the other to the seventeenth (restored in the nineteenth), the Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium edition had the great fault of taking as its base a late manuscript, and relegating to notes the variants of six other manuscripts, including those used by Basset. The latter published two manuscripts—especially for the first half-year— amalgamating them without taking account of the fact that they represented two different recensions—so much so that the finished product is a Synaxarion that never existed! In the Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium Forget was more fortunate, for when he began his edition, he noted that the text of Paris Bibliothèque nationale 4869 gave a different recension.

He therefore published it separately (vols. 47-48, pp. 291ff). Unfortunately his translation mingled the two recensions; and it, too, fabricated a hybrid Synaxarion that never existed in the manuscripts. We can at least separate the two recensions, for he indicates in the margin the pages of the Arabic text. If the page is 291 or beyond, the reader who has been warned will know that it is the Sahidic recension. The translation errors are less frequent, and the number of manuscripts used is greater; but here, as in Basset’s edition, there was no serious analysis of the manuscripts of the Synaxarion beforehand. In particular, the manuscripts deposited in Egypt had not been consulted.

In 1935-1937 there was an edition at Cairo, without a translation into a European language, made by two qummus (a special rank in the Coptic Church, superior to the simple priest, and a title given also to the abbots of monasteries, deriving from the Greek HEGUMENOS), ‘Abd al-Masih Mikha’il and Armaniyus Habashi Shita al-Birmawi. This was based—according to the preface—on several Egyptian manuscripts, enumerated below, and on the Paris edition.

It has the advantage of adding to the manuscripts of the Synaxarion some notices, taken from other sources that are not named, concerning certain recent patriarchs or saints who are not found in the manuscripts of the Synaxarion—for example, saints Dimyanah, Macrobius, Pshoi, and Petrus, whose relics are still the object of a pilgrimage to Sidfa. The authors suppressed what appeared to them worthless or unseemly. Although this edition is precious because it uses manuscripts unknown in Europe, one cannot trust it completely, since its choice remains arbitrary. There is, thus, no totally reliable edition, and each has its advantages and its limitations.

These editions ignore the true calendar indicating which saint is to be celebrated on each day. Such a calendar was found in most of the manuscripts of the Qatamarus. The 1900-1902 edition of the annual Qatamarus, completed later for Lent, Holy Week, and the Pentecostal season (the period between Easter and Pentecost), gives this calendar, indicating by a rubric which saint or which New Testament event is to be commemorated, whereas the Synaxarion offered the faithful all the saints known to the authors. If the development of the printing press caused these printed editions of both the Synaxarion and the Lectionary to become the quasi-official editions in use everywhere in Egypt, this diffusion does not put an end to possible contradictions. Through their formation, local usage, which has become that of all Egypt, may retain a saint or event in the Lectionary that is unknown in the Synaxarion and vice versa.

The reader who wishes information about the cult of a saint of the Coptic church therefore must have recourse to several editions, each with its lacunae and its unique information. One must also take account of the fact that some local or ancient saints have not found a place in the Synaxarion or the Lectionary. Some Egyptian saints retained as such by the Greek books, liturgical or historical, are unknown to the Coptic books.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

  • ‘Abd al-Masih Mikhail and Armanyus Habashi Shita al-Birmawi. AlSinaksar, 2 vols. Cairo 1935-1937.
  • Malan, S. C. The Calendar of the Coptic Church. Original Documents of the Coptic Church, 2. London, 1873.
  • Wüstenfeld, H. F. Macrizi’s Geschichte der Copten. Göttigen, 1845.

RENÉ-GEORGES COQUIN

The List of Saints

Synaxarion is the Coptic and Greek term for the Latin synaxarium, and is a formal compilation of the lives of the martyrs, saints, and religious heroes of the Coptic church. These biographies are sometimes reduced to a mere citation of each martyr or saint read in the course of the liturgy, after excerpts from the Acts (ABRAXOS) during the morning service on the day of the passion of each. This is usually presented in the form of an encomium or homily for the edification of the congregation.

The development of the martyr cult in the Coptic church dates from the early centuries, when those encomiums were read in both Sahidic and Bohairic (from the beginning of the Middle Ages), and in Arabic (after the ARAB CONQUEST OF EGYPT). In most cases, these biographies were translated into Arabic from Greek and Coptic originals. Furthermore, the current Arabic text includes a limited number of extraneous entries besides these biographies, in which certain notable events are commemorated on given dates, such as the Crucifixion, the feasts and fasts of the church, the apparition of an archangel or the Virgin Mary, the Coptic New Year, the dedication of a historic church, and so on. But the bulk of the work remains dedicated to the saints and martyrs whose cult became embedded in church traditions.

Until the fourteenth century, the lives of these holy men and women were read separately, in independent encomiums, on their passion days. Ultimately they were assembled in a single book, an operation primarily associated with Anba Butrus al-Jamil, bishop of Malij, though others are known to have participated in this task, including Anba Mikha’il, bishop of Atrib, and Anba Yuhanna, bishop of Parallos (Burullus). At later dates, however, names of other holy men appeared in the fourteenth-century Arabic text, such as Anba Abraham, bishop of Fayyum, in modern times. The present recension of the Arabic Synaxarion, approved by the church authority and read throughout the Coptic church, has been compiled from a number of older manuscripts, of which some are directly ascribed to Anba Butrus, bishop of Malij. They are the following:

  1. Three manuscripts in the patriarchal library, the oldest of which is dated 1114 A.M./A.D. 1398, which could be contemporary with Anba Butrus.
  2. Two copies in the Coptic Museum Library, one of which is dated 1056 A.M./A.D. 1340 and must have been from the time of Anba Butrus. The other is dated 1450 A.M./A.D. 1734 and is supposed to have been rendered into Arabic from an older Ethiopic translation by Christodoulos, the Coptic primate of Ethiopia at the time.
  3. Two copies in the Baramus Monastery Library in Wadi al- Natrun: one dated 1360 A.M./A.D. 1644, and the other dated 1496 A.M./A.D. 1780. The second copy is said to have been restored by IBRAHIM AL-JAWHARI.

Other, older, printed editions of the Arabic text are extant. The first publication was started by J. Forget (see above). The text of ‘Abd-al-Masih Mikha’il and Armaniyus Habashi Shita al-Birmawi has been reproduced several times and is still in print. In the following pages, we have reproduced a summary of its contents under each date of the Coptic calendar. It is undoubtedly the most complete formal register of all known names of martyrs and saints to be cited in the church liturgies, and it must remain the primary source of Coptic HAGIOGRAPHY, even though it may occasionally be uncritical and apocryphal. Side by side with the Synaxarion, mention must be made of the DIFNAR or Antiphonarium, consisting of two alternative hymns for each day of the year to commemorate a saint or saints included in the liturgy on that date according to the authority of the Synaxarion.

Inasmuch as the formula to convert Coptic calendar dates into their Gregorian equivalents varies from century to century, the corresponding Julian calendar date, which remains constant through time, is given for each Coptic day in the list below. To convert the Julian date into its Gregorian equivalent add thirteen to the Julian day for the years 1900-2100. For example, in the years 1900-2100 the Julian date 1 September takes 14 September (1 + 13=14) as its Gregorian equivalent. The Coptic New Year, listed as 29 August in the Julian calendar, is on 11 September in the Gregorian reckoning and the Coptic celebration of Christmas, which comes on 25 December in the Julian year, falls on 7 January in the Gregorian calendar. For the years 2101-2200, fourteen must be added to the Julian date to give the Gregorian equivalent. Thus, in the twenty- second century, Copts who follow the Gregorian calendar will celebrate the New Year on 12 September and Christmas on 8 January, though from the standpoint of the Coptic and Julian calendars the dates will not have changed. (For other conversions and for more information on the interconnections between the various calendars, see Calendar, Coptic; Calendar, Gregorian; Calendar, Julian.)

Table 1. Coptic Church Calendar (Synaxarion) with Corresponding Julian Dates

MONTH OF TUT (AUGUST-SEPTEMBER)

1 Tut—29 Aug.      Coptic New Year (Nawruz) Bartholomew the Apostle Abilius, 3rd patriarch of Alexandria

2—30                       Martyrdom of John the Baptist Dasyah of Tanda martyred

3—31                       Holy Synod convened at Alexandria in A.D. 242

4 Tut—1 Sept.        Macarius II, 69th patriarch of Alexandria

5—2                         Martyrdom of Saint Sophia

6—3                         Isaiah the Prophet
                                 Martyrdom of Bashililiyah (Basilissa)

7—4                        Dioscorus I, 25th patriarch of Alexandria Martyrdom of Agathon, Peter, John, Amun, Ammunah,
                                 and  Rifqah, their mother Severianus, bishop of Jabalah

8—5                         Martyrdom of the prophet Zacharias
                                 The prophet Moses Martyrdom of Dayumdis (Diomede)

9—6                         Martyrdom of Pisura the Bishop

10—7                       Martyrdom of Saint Matrunah

                                 Commemoration of Basin and her children

11—8                       Martyrdom of Saint Wasilidas (Basilidas)

12—9                       Holy Synod of Ephesus to try Nestorius (A.D. 431) Interment of Saint Iqlimus and his company

13—10                    Matthew II, 90th patriarch of Alexandria

                               Miracle of Saint Basil of Caesarea in Cappadocia

14—11                    Saint Agathon the Stylite

15—12                    Translation of the body of Saint Stephen the Archdeacon

16—13                    Dedication of the Church of the Resurrection

                                Translation of the body of Saint John Chrysostom

17—14                    Exaltation of the Holy Cross

                                Saint Theognosta who introduced Christianity to India [Georgia]

18—15                    Martyrdom of Saint Porphyrius (Porphyry)

                                Commemoration of Stephen the Priest and Nakita (Nicetas) the Martyr

19—16                    Commemoration of Gregory the Armenian patriarch

20—17                    Athanasius II, 28th patriarch of Alexandria Martyrdom of Saint Melitina the Virgin Theopista the
                                Ascetic Nun

21—18                    Commemoration of the Virgin Mary

                                Martyrdom of Saints Cyprian and Justin

22—19                    Martyrdom of Saints Cotylas and Axuwa, children of Shapur, king of Persia, and their friend Tatus

                                Martyrdom of Julius of Aqfahs, recorder of martyrs’ biographies

23—20                   Martyrdom of Eunapius and Andrew

                                Martyrdom of Saint Thecla

                                Dedication of the Church of the Virgin in Harit al-Rum, after its closure

24—21                    Gregory, Pachomian monk

                                Commemoration of quadratus of the seventy disciples

25—22                    Jonah the Prophet

26—23                    Annunciation of John the Baptist’s birth to his father, Zacharias

27—24                    Martyrdom of Eustathius and his wife and two sons

28—25                    Martyrdom of Abadir (Apater) and his ster Ira’I (Herai or Erai)

29—26                    Martyrdom of Repsima and her sisters, all virgins, by Diocletian

30—27                    Athanasius the Apostolic, 20th patriarch of Alexandria MONTH OF BABAH (SEPTEMBER
                                 OCTOBER)

1 Babah-28 Sept.     Martyrdom of Saint Anastasia

2—29                         Advent of Severus, patriarch of Antioch, to Egypt

3—30                         Simon II, 51st patriarch of Alexandria

                                   Martyrdom of Saint John the Soldier

4 Babah—1 Oct.      Martyrdom of Wakhus (Bacchus)

5—2                           Martyrdom of Paul, patriarch of Constantinople

6—3                           Commemoration of Hinnah, mother of Prophet Samuel

7—4                           Paul of Tammah, Martyr

8—5                           Martyrdom of Saint Matra by Decius

                                   Martyrdom of Apa Hor, Tusya (Susanna) and her children, and Agathon the Hermit

9—6                           Eumenius, 7th patriarch of Alexandria

                                   Eclipse of the sun in A.M. 958

                                   Commemoration of Simon the Bishop

10—7                         Martyrdom of Saint Sergius, companion of Saint Bacchus (Wakhus)

11—8                         Jacob, patriarch of Antioch

                                   Commemoration of Saint Pelagia

12—9                       Demetrius II, 12th patriarch of Alexandria Martyrdom of Matthew the Evangelist Commemoration
                                  of Archangel Michael

13—10                       Commemoration of Saint Zacharias the Monk

14—11                       Commemoration of Philip or Philas, one of the seven deacons

15—12                       Martyrdom of Pantaleon the Physician

16—13                       Agathon, 39th patriarch of Alexandria

                                  Commemoration of Saints Carpus, Papylus, and Peter

17—14                       Dioscorus II, 31st patriarch of Alexandria

18—15                       Theophilus, 23rd patriarch of Alexandria

19—16                       Holy Synod of Antioch against Paul of Samosata

                                   Martyrdom of Saint Theophilus and his wife

20—17                       Saint John Colobos

21—18                       Commemoration of the Mother of God

                                   Translation of body of Lazarus

                                   Joel the Prophet Saint Evagrius

22—19                       Saint Luke the Evangelist

23—20                       Yusab I, 52nd patriarch of Alexandria

                                   Martyrdom of Dionysius the Bishop

24—21                       Hilarion the Hermit

                                   Martyrdom of Saints Paul, Longinus, and Zena

25—22                       Saints Apollo and Abib

                                   Dedication of the Church of Saint Julius of Aqfahs

26—23                       Martyrdom of Saint Timon, one of the seventy disciples

                                   Commemoration of the seven martyrs in the mountain of Saint Antony

27—24                       Martyrdom of Saint Macarius, bishop of Tkow (Idku)

28—25                       Martyrdom of Saints Marcianus and Mercurius

29—26                       Martyrdom of Saint Demetrius of Thessalonica

30—27                       Dedication of Saint Mark’s Church and apparition of his decapitated head

                                    Saint Abraham the Hermit of Minuf

MONTH OF HATUR (OCTOBER-NOVEMBER)

1 Hatur—28 Oct.     Martyrdom of Saints Maximus, Numitius, Victor, and Philip

                                   Commemoration of Saint Cleopas and his companion

2—29                         Peter III (Mongus), 27th patriarch of Alexandria

3—30                         Saint Cyriacus

                                   Saint Athanasius and his sister Irene

4—31                         Martyrdom of Saints John and Jacob, bishops of Persia

                                   Martyrdom of Saints Epimachus and ‘Azaryanus

5 Hatur—1 Nov.      Apparition of Saint Longinus’ head

                                  Martyrdom of Saint Timothy and translation of the body of al-Amir Tadrus (Theodorus) of Shotep

6—2                           Saint Felix, pope of Rome

                                  Dedication of the Church of Our Lady in Dayr al-Muharraq at Qusqam

7—3                           Martyrdom of Saint Georgius of Alexandria

                                   Martyrdom of Saint Naharua

                                   Menas, bishop of Tmuis

                                   Dedication of the Church of Saint Georgius the Cappadocian

8—4                           Commemoration of the Four Bodiless Beasts (Rev. 4:6-7)

9—5                           Isaac, 41st patriarch of Alexandria

                                   Ecumenical Council of Nicaea (A.D. 325)

10—6                         Martyrdom of the fifty virgins and their mother, Sophia

                                  Holy Synod of Rome to decide the dates of Epiphany and the fasts during the papacy of Demetrius
                                   I of Alexandria and Victor, pope of Rome

11—7                         Saint Hinnah (Anna), mother of Our Lady

                                  Martyrdom of Saint Archelaus and Saint Elijah the Qummus

12—8                         Commemoration of Michael the Archangel

13—9                         Saint Timothy, bishop of Antinoopolis

                                   Zacharias, 64th patriarch of Alexandria

14—10                       Saint Martinus, bishop of Tours

15—11                       Martyrdom of Saint Menas the Miracle Maker

16—12                       Fast of the Nativity in the Coptic Church

                                   Dedication of the Church of Onophrius (Abu Nofer)

17—13                       Saint John Chrysostom

18—14                       Martyrdom of Saints Adrusis and Yu’anna (Junia) Martyrdom of Saint Philip the Apostle

19—15                       Dedication of the Church of Saints Sergius and Bacchus

                                   Commemoration of Saint Bartholomew

20—16                       Anianus, 2nd patriarch of Alexandria

                                   Dedication of the churches of al-Amir Tadrus ibn Yuhanna of Shotep and al-Amir Tadrus al-
                                   Mashriqi

21—17                       Commemoration of the Virgin Mary, Mother of God

                                   Saint Gregory the Miracle Maker

                                   Cosmas II, 54th patriarch of Alexandria

                                   Commemoration of Halfa (Alphaeus), Zakka (Zacharias), Romanus, and John, all martyrs

                                   Saints Thomas, Victor, and Isaac of al-Ashmunayn

22—18                       Martyrdom of Saints Cosmas and Damian, their brothers, and their mother

23—19                       Cornelius the Centurion

                                    Dedication of the Church of Saint Marina

24—20                       Commemoration of the twenty-four elders (Rev 4:4, 10-11)

25—21                       Martyrdom of Saint Mercurius (Abu Sayfayn)

26—22                       Martyrdom of Valerianus and his brother Tibarcius

                                    Commemoration of Gregory, bishop of Nyssa

27—23                       Martyrdom of Saint James Intercisus (Jacob the Sawn)

28—24                       Martyrdom of Saint Sarapamon, bishop of Nikiou

29—25                       Martyrdom of Saint Peter, 17th patriarch of Alexandria

                                    Martyrdom of Saint Clement, pope of Rome

30—26                       Acacius, patriarch of Constantinople

                                    Martyrdom of Saint Macarius

                                    Dedication of the Church of Saints Cosmas and Damian, their Brother, and their Mother

MONTH OF KIYAHK (NOVEMBER—DECEMBER)

1 Kiyahk-27 Nov     Saint Peter al-Rahawi, bishop of Ghazza

                                   Dedication of Saint Shenute’s Church

2—28                         Saint Apa Hor the Ascetic

3—29                         Commemoration of the entry of the Virgin into the Jerusalem sanctuary

4—30                         Martyrdom of Saint Andrew the Apostle, brother of Peter

5 Kiyahk-1 Dec.       Nahum the Prophet

                                   Martyrdom of Victor of Asyut

                                   Martyrdom of Saint Isidore

6—2                           Martyrdom of Saint Batlas (Anatole) the Priest

                                   Abraham, 62nd pope of Alexandria

7—3                           Matthew the Poor, ascetic

8—4                           Heraclas, 13th pope of Alexandria Martyrdom of Saints Barbara and Juliana Martyrdom of Saints
                                   Paese and Thecla

                                   Commemoration of Saint Samuel of Dayr al-Qalamun

9—5                           Saint Bimin (Pamin) the Confessor, bloodless martyr

10—6                         Translation of the body of Saint Severus, patriarch of Antioch, to the Enaton Monastery west of
                                   Alexandria

                                   Saint Nicolas, bishop of Myra, bloodless martyr

11—7                         Anba Pidjimi, ascetic in the wilderness of Shihat, from the city of Fishah

12—8                         Commemoration of Archangel Michael

                                   Anba Hadra of Aswan

                                   Saint John the Confessor

                                   Council of Rome against Novatus

13—9                         Martyrdom of Saint Barsanuphius Father Abrakiyus (Abracas), ascetic Dedication of the Church
                                   of Saint Misa’il

14—10                       Martyrdom of Saints Bahnam and his sister Sarah

                                   Martyrdom of Saint Christodoulus

                                   Martyrdom of Saints Simeon of Minuf, Apa Hor, and Apa

                                   Mena the Elder

                                   Martyrdom of Saint Ammonius, bishop of Isna

15—11                       Saint Gregory, patriarch of the Armenians

16—12                      Gideon, Old Testament judge of the Israelites Martyrdom of Saints Harwaj, Ananius, and Khuzi
                                  Dedication of the Church of Saint Jacob the Persian

17—13                       Commemoration of Saint Luke the Stylite and translation of his remains

18—14                       Translation of the body of Saint Titus to Constantinople

                                   Commemoration of the martyr Heracleas and the priest Philemon

19—15                       Saint John, bishop of Parallos, compiler of the Synaxarion

20—16                       Haggai the Prophet

21—17                       Commemoration of Mary, Mother of God

                                   Martyrdom of Saint Barnabas, one of the seventy elders

22—18                       Commemoration of Archangel Gabriel

                                   Anastasius, 36th patriarch of Alexandria

23—19                       David the Prophet

                                    Saint Timotheus the Wanderer

24—20                       Martyrdom of Saint Ignatius, patriarch of Constantinople

                                    Saint Philogonius, patriarch of Antioch

                                   Birth of Saint Takla Haymanot the Abyssinian

25—21                       Saint John Kama (the Black) of Scetis

26—22                       Martyrdom of Saint Anastasia

                                   Martyrdom of Saint Juliana

27—23                       Martyrdom of Saint Bisada the Bishop

28—24                       Martyrdom of 150 men and 24 women from Antinoopolis

29—25                       Feast of the Nativity of Our Lord

30—26                       Commemoration date of Anba Yu’annis, Hegumenos of Scetis

MONTH OF TUBAH (DECEMBER-JANUARY)

1 Tubah-27 Dec.      Martyrdom of Saint Stephen the Archdeacon

                                    Martyrdom of Saint Leontianus

2—28                         Theonas, 16th patriarch of Alexandria

                                   Martyrdom of Saint Callinicus, bishop of Awsim

3—29                         Murder of the Innocents of Bethlehem by King Herod

4—30                         Saint John the Evangelist

5—31                         Martyrdom of Saint Eusignius, general in Constantine’s army

6 Tubah-1 Jan.       Circumcision of Jesus Christ Commemoration of Elijah the Prophet Marcianus, 8th patriarch of
                                   Alexandria Saint Basil the Great, bishop of Caesarea

7—2                           Sylvester, pope of Rome

8—3                           Dedication of the Church of Saint Macarius Andronicus, 37th patriarch of Alexandria Benjamin,
                                   38th patriarch of Alexandria

9—4                           Saint Abraam, ascetic of Scetis and companion of Anba Jawirjah (George)

10—5                         Paramone of the Epiphany (Christ’s baptism)

11—6                         Theophany (apparition of Our Lord) Epiphany

12—7                       Commemoration of the Archangel Michael Martyrdom of Saint Theodorus the Oriental Martyrdom
                                   of Saint Anatolius

13—8                         Feast of Cana in Galilee

                                   Theophilus the Ascetic

                                   Martyrdom of Saint Dimyanah

14—9                         Saint Archellides, ascetic of Saint Romanos Monastery

                                   Saint Maximus, brother of Saint Domitius, both sons of the king of the Romans

15—10                       Obadiah the Prophet

16—11                       Martyrdom of Saint Philotheus

                                  John IV, 48th patriarch of Alexandria

17—12                       Saints Maximus and Domitius, ascetics of Scetis

                                  Anba Yusab, bishop of Jirja, known as al-Abahh

18—13                       Saint Jacob, bishop of Nisibis

19—14                       Discovery of the remains of Saints Apa Hor and Pisura and their mother, Empira, all martyrs

20—15                       Saint Prochorus, one of the seventy elders

                                   Dedication of the Church of Saint John of the Golden Gospel and translation of his remains to it

                                   Martyrdom of Saint Bahna and Anba Kaluj the Presbyter

21—16                       Commemoration of Our Lady’s death Saint Hilaria, daughter of Emperor Zeno Saint Gregory,
                                   brother of Basil the Great

22—17                       Commemoration of Saint Antony the Great

23—18                       Martyrdom of Saint Timotheus the Elder

                                   Cyril IV, 110th patriarch of Alexandria

24—19                       Saint Mary, ascetic recluse

                                    Anba Bisadah the Presbyter

25—20                       Saint Peter the Ascetic

                                   Saint Ascla (Askirla) the Martyr

26—21                       Martyrdom of the 49 saints and elders of Scetis

                                   Saint Anastasia, ascetic of the reign of Justinian

27—22                       Martyrdom of Saint Sarapion Commemoration of the angel Suryal (Suri’il) Translation of the
                                   body of Saint Timotheus the Elder Martyrdom of Saint Ab Fam (Epiphanius), a soldier

28—23                       Martyrdom of Saint Clement

                                   Martyrdom of Saint Ka’u (Kaou) from the town of Bamwayh in the Fayyum

29—24                       Commemoration of Saint Aksani (Xene) Commemoration of Saint Cyriacus

30—25                       Martyrdom of Saints Pistis, Helpis, and Agape, virgins, and their mother, Sophia

MONTH OF AMSHIR (JANUARY-FEBRUARY)

1 Amshir-26 Jan.      Ecumenical Council of Constantinople (A.D. 381) Dedication of the first church built in
                                     commemoration of Saint Peter the “Seal of the Martyrs”

2—27                         Saint Paul the Great, first of the wanderer saints

                                    Saint Longinus, abbot of the Enaton (Dayr al-Zujaj)

3—28                         Saint Jacob the Ascetic

4—29                         Saint Agapius, one of the seventy elders

5—30                         Agrippinus, 10th patriarch of Alexandria

                                    Anba Bishoi, abbot of Dayr Akhmim and Anba Abanub (Nob)

                                    Saint Apollo, companion of Anba Abib

                                   Translation of the bodies of the forty-nine elders of the Shihat wilderness

6—31                         Apparition of Saint Hippolytus of Rome

                                  Martyrdom of Saint Apa Kir (Cyrus) and Saint John and three virgins—Theodora, Theopista,
                                  Theodoxia—and their mother, Athanasia

7 Amshir-1 Feb.        Alexander II, 43rd patriarch of Alexandria

                                   Theodore, 45th patriarch of Alexandria

8—2                           Feast of the entry of Jesus Christ into the Temple

9—3                           Saint Barsuma, father of the Syrian monks

                                   Martyrdom of Saint Paul the Syrian

10—4                         Martyrdom of Jacob the Elder, son of Halfa (Alphaeus) Martyrdom of Saint Justus, son of
                                   Emperor Numerianus Saint Isidorus of Pelusium (al-Farama)

                                  Martyrdom of Philo, bishop of Persia

11—5                         Martyrdom of Fabianus, pope of Rome

12—6                         Commemoration of Archangel Michael

                                   Saint Gelasius

13—7                         Martyrdom of Saint Sergius of Atrib, his father, and his mother

                                   Timothy III, 32nd patriarch of Alexandria

14—8                         Severus, patriarch of Antioch

                                   Jacob, 50th patriarch of Alexandria

15—9                         Zechariah the Prophet

                                   Dedication of the first Church of the Forty Martyrs of Sebaste

                                   Saint Paphnutius the Ascetic

16—10                       Saint Elizabeth, mother of John the Baptist

17—11                       Martyrdom of Saint Menas the Ascetic from Akhmim

18—12                       Malatius, patriarch of Antioch

19—13                       Translation of the body of Saint Martinianus from Athens to Antioch

20—14                       Peter II, 21st patriarch of Alexandria

                                  Martyrdom of Saints Basil, Theodore, and Timothy

21—15                       Commemoration of the Virgin Mary

                                   Martyrdom of Saint Onesimus, Saint Paul the Apostle’s pupil

                                   Gabriel I, 57th patriarch of Alexandria

                                   Saint Zacharias, bishop of Sakha

22—16                       Martyrdom of Maruta, bishop of Mayafirqin

23—17                       Martyrdom of Eusebius, son of Basilidas, minister of Diocletian

24—18                       Saint Agapitus the Bishop

                                   Martyrdom of Timotheus and Matthias, priests

25—19                       Martyrdom of Archippus, Philemon, and Abfiyyah the Virgin

                                   Martyrdom of Saints Quna (Conon) of Rome and Menas of Cyprus

26—20                       Hosea the Prophet

                                   Martyrdom of Saint Zadok and his 118 companions

27—21                       Saint Eustathius, patriarch of Antioch

28—22                       Martyrdom of Saint Theodorus the Roman

29—23                       Martyrdom of Saint Polycarpus, bishop of Smyrna (A.D. 167)

30—24                       Discovery of John the Baptist’s head

MONTH OF BARAMHAT (FEBRUARY-MARCH)

1 Baramhat-25 Feb Saint Narcissus, bishop of Jerusalem (A.D. 222) Martyrdom of Saint Alexandrus, bishop of
                                    Cappadocia Saint Mercurius the Bishop

2—26                         Martyrdom of Saint Makrawi (Macrobius), bishop of Nikiou

3—27                         Cosmas III, 58th patriarch of Alexandria Martyrdom of Saint Porphyrius (Porphyry) Anba Hadid
                                    the Presbyter

4—28                         Holy synod of the Island of Bani ‘Amr for deciding the date of Easter

                                    Martyrdom of Saint Hanulius, prince of Perga

5 Baramhat-1 Mar. Anba Sarapamon, presbyter of Dayr Abu Yuhannis

                                   Martyrdom of Saint Eudoxia

                                   Saint Peter the Presbyter

6—2                           Martyrdom of Saint Dioscorus

                                   Saint Theodotus the Bishop

7—3                           Martyrdom of Saints Philemon and Apollonius

                                   Martyrdom of Saint Mary the Israelite

8—4                           Martyrdom of Saint Matthias the Elder

                                   Julian, 11th patriarch of Alexandria

                                   Martyrdom of Arianus, governor of Antinoopolis

9—5                           Saint Conon

                                   Martyrdom of Saints Andrianus and Martha, his wife, Eusebius, Armaniyus, and the forty
                                   martyrs

10—6                         Commemoration of the apparition of the Holy Cross

11—7                         Martyrdom of Saint Basilios the Bishop (A.D. 298)

12—8                         Commemoration of Archangel Michael

                                   Apparition of Saint Demetrius, 12th patriarch of Alexandria

                                   Martyrdom of Saint Malachias in Palestine

                                   Martyrdom of Saint Gelasinus in Damascus

13—9                         Saint Dionysius, 14th patriarch of Alexandria

                                   Return of Saints Macarius the Great and Macarius

                                   Alexandrinus from exile

                                   Martyrdom of the forty martyrs of Sebaste

14—10                       Anba Kyrillos (Cyril), 75th patriarch of Alexandria

                                   Martyrdom of Saint Shenute of Bahnasa

                                   Martyrdom of Saints Eugenius, Agathodorus, and Elpidius

15—11                       Saint Sarah the Ascetic

                                   Martyrdom of Saint Helias of Hnes (Ahnas)

16—12                       Anba Kha’il, 46th patriarch of Alexandria

17—13                       Lazarus, friend of Our Lord

                                   George the Ascetic, Belasius the Martyr, and Anba Yusab the Bishop

                                   Anba Basilios, archbishop of Jerusalem

                                   Martyrdom of Sidhom Bishay in Damietta

18—14                       Martyrdom of Isidorus, companion of Sina the Soldier

19—15                       Saint Aristobulus the Elder

                                   Martyrdom of the seven saints, Alexandrus, Agapius, and their companions

20—16                       Anba Kha’il III, 56th patriarch of Alexandria

                                   Raising of Lazarus from the dead

21—17                       Commemoration of Our Lady, the Virgin Mother of God

                                   Commemoration of the advent of Our Lord Jesus Christ to the house of ‘Anya

                                   Consultation of the chief priests for killing Lazarus, whom the Lord raised from the dead

22—18                       Saint Cyril, bishop of Jerusalem

                                   Saint Michael, bishop of Naqadah

23—19                       Daniel the Prophet

24—20                       Apparition of Our Lady at the Church of Zaytun

                                   Anba Macarius, 59th patriarch of Alexandria

25—21                       Saint Fresca, one of the seventy disciples (elders) Matthew IV, 102nd patriarch of Alexandria

26—22                       Saint Euphrasia, virgin

                                   Peter VI, 104th patriarch of Alexandria

27—23                       Crucifixion of Our Lord Jesus Christ

                                   Saint Macarius the Great

                                   Martyrdom of Saint Domicius

28—24                       Emperor Constantine the Great

                                   Peter VII, 109th patriarch of Alexandria

                                   Anba Sarapamon, surnamed Abu Tarhah, bishop of Minufiyyah Province

29—25                       The Annunciation

                                   The Resurrection of Our Lord

30—26                      Commemoration of Archangel Gabriel

                                   Translation of the body of Saint Jacob the Sawn (James Intercisus)

                                   Samson, judge of the Israelites

MONTH OF BARAMUDAH (MARCH-APRIL)

1 Baramudah—27 Mar. Silvanus, ascetic of Scetis

                                           Raid of Arabs of Upper Egypt on the wilderness of Shihat (Scetis)

                                           Aaron the Priest, brother of Moses

2—28                         Martyrdom of Saint Christophorus

                                           Anba Yu’annis (John IX), 81st patriarch of Alexandria

3—29                         Saint John, bishop of Jerusalem

                                           Michael V, 71st patriarch of Alexandria

4—30                         Martyrdom of Saints Victor, Decius, Irene the Virgin, and their companions

5—31                         Ezekiel the Prophet

                                           Martyrdom of Hibatyus, bishop of Gangra

6 Baramudah—1 Apr. Apparition of Our Lord to Thomas after His resurrection

                                           Saint Mary the Egyptian

7—2                           Joachim, Christ’s grandfather

                                           Saint Macrobius

                                           Saints Agapius, Theodora, and Macrobius (Abu Maqrufah)

8—3                           Martyrdom of the saintly virgins Agapia, Irene, and Siyunyah

                                           Martyrdom of the 150 believers at the hands of the king of Persia

9—4                           Saint Zosimus

                                           Commemoration of the miracle performed by Shenute I, 55th patriarch of Alexandria

10—5                         Anba Isaac, disciple of Anba Apollos

                                           Gabriel II, 70th patriarch of Alexandria

11—6                         Saint Theodora

                                           Saint John, bishop of Ghazza

12—7                         Saint Alexandrus, bishop of Jerusalem

                                           Saint Antuniyus, bishop of Thmuis

13—8                         Martyrdom of Saints Yashu‘ and Joseph

                                           Martyrdom of Dayunisyah the Deaconess and Midyus

                                           Anba Yu’annis (John XVII), 105th patriarch of Alexandria

14—9                         Maximus, 15th patriarch of Alexandria

15—10                       Dedication of the first altar of Saint Nicholas, bishop of Myra, for the Jacobite Christians

                                           Dedication of the Church of Saint Agapius the Disciple

                                           Saint Alexandra the Queen

                                           Mark VI, 101st patriarch of Alexandria

16—11                       Martyrdom of Saint Antipas, bishop of Pergamon

17—12                       Martyrdom of Saint Jacob the Disciple, brother of Saint John the Evangelist

18—13                       Martyrdom of Saint Arsenius, follower of Saint Susinius

19—14                       Martyrdom of Saint Simeon the Armenian, bishop of Persia, together with 150 companions

                                           Martyrdom of Saint John (Yuhanna Abu Najah) the Great

                                           Martyrdom of Abu al-‘Ala’ Fahd ibn Ibrahim and his companions

                                           Martyrdom of David the Ascetic

20—15                       Martyrdom of Saint Paphnutius of Dandarah

21—16                       Commemoration of Our Lady, Mother of God

                                           Saint Protheus the Latin

22—17                       Saint Ishaq al-Hurini

                                           Anba Alexandros I, 19th patriarch of Alexandria

                                           Mark II, 49th patriarch of Alexandria

                                           Kha’il II, 53rd patriarch of Alexandria

23—18                       Martyrdom of Saint George the Great (A.D. 307)

24—19                       Shenute I, 55th patriarch of Alexandria

                                           Martyrdom of Saint Sina, soldier

25—20                       Martyrdom of Saint Sarah and her two sons

                                           Commemoration of Saint Paphnutius the Hermit and Saint

                                           Theodorus the Ascetic and 120 Martyrs

26—21                       Martyrdom of Saint Susinius

                                           John VII, 77th patriarch of Alexandria

27—22                       Martyrdom of Victor, son of Romanus

28—23                       Martyrdom of Saint Milius the Ascetic

29—24                       Erastus, one of seventy disciples

                                           Saint Acacius, bishop of Jerusalem

30—25                       Martyrdom of Saint Mark the Evangelist

MONTH OF BASHANS (APRIL-MAY)

1 Bashans-26 Apr.  Nativity of the Virgin Mary, Mother of God

2—27                         Job the Prophet

                                   Saint Tadrus (Theodorus), disciple of Saint Pachomius

                                   Martyrdom of Saint Philotheus

3—28                         Saint Jason, one of the seventy elders Saint Utimus, priest from Fuwwah Gabriel IV, 86th
                                   patriarch of Alexandria

4—29                         John I, 29th patriarch of Alexandria

                                   John V, 72nd patriarch of Alexandria

5—30                         Martyrdom of Jeremiah the Prophet

6 Bashans—1 May   Martyrdom of Saint Isaac of Difrah

                                   Saint Macarius the Alexandrian

                                   Saint Babnudah (Paphnutius) of al-Bandarah

7—2                           Saint Athanasius I the Apostolic, 20th patriarch of Alexandria

8—3                           Martyrdom of Saint John of Sanhut

                                   Saint Daniel, qummus of Shihat

9—4                           Saint Helena the Queen (A.D. 327) John XI, 89th patriarch of Alexandria Gabriel VIII, 97th
                                   patriarch of Alexandria

10—5                         The Three Youths in the Furnace: Ananias, Azarias, and Misael

11—6                         Martyrdom of Saint Theoclia, wife of Saint Justus

                                   Saint Paphnutius the Bishop

12—7                         Dedication of the Church of Saint Dimyanah Translation of the remains of Saint John Chrysostom
                                   Apparition of a cross of light on Golgotha

                                   Mark VII, 106th patriarch of Alexandria

                                   Martyrdom of Mu‘allim Malati, scribe of the Mamluk

                                   Ayyub Bey al-Defterdar in A.M. 1519/A.D. 1811

13—8                         Saint Arsenius, mentor of the royal children (A.D. 445)

14—9                         Saint Pachomius of Tabennese, father of the cenobitic rule

                                   Martyrdom of Saint Epimachus of Pelusium (al-Farama)

15—10                       Martyrdom of Sim‘an al-Ghayyur (Simon Zelotes) Four hundred martyrs of Dandarah

                                   Saint Mena the Deacon

16—11                       Saint John the Evangelist

17—12                       Saint Epiphanius, bishop of Cyprus

18—13                       Saint George, companion of Saint Abraam

                                   Pentecost (Whitsuntide)

19—14                       Saint Isaac, priest of the cells (al-Qalali) Martyrdom of Saint Isidor of Antioch

20—15                       Saint Ammonius the Recluse

21—16                       Commemoration of the Virgin Mary

                                   Saint Martinianus (Motianus)

22—17                       Saint Andronicus, one of the seventy disciples

23—18                       Saint Yunyas (Julius), one of the seventy disciples

                                   Martyrdom of Julian and his mother at Alexandria

24—19                       Commemoration of the advent of Christ into Egypt

                                   Habakkuk the Prophet

                                   Martyrdom of Bashnunah, monk of Dayr Anba Maqar

25—20                       Martyrdom of Saint Colluthus of Antinoopolis (surnamed Abu Qultah)

                                   Commemoration of Mu‘allim Ibrahim al-Jawhari

26—21                       Saint Thomas the Apostle

27—22                       John II, 30th patriarch of Alexandria

                                   Lazarus, brother of Mary and bishop of Cyprus

28—23                       Translation of the body of Saint Epiphanius to Cyprus (A.D. 403)

29—24                       Saint Simeon Stylite

30—25                   Michael IV, 68th patriarch of Alexandria Saint Phorus, one of the seventy disciples

MONTH OF BA’UNAH (MAY-JUNE)

1 Ba’unah-26 May Dedication of the Church of Saint Leontius the Syrian Martyrdom of Saint Cosmas of Taha and his companions Martyrdom of Saint Epiphanius the Soldier

2—27                         Finding of the bodies of John the Baptist and the Prophet Elijah in Alexandria

                                   John XVIII, 107th patriarch of Alexandria

3—28                         Dedication of Church of Mar Jirjis at Birma and another at Bir Ma’ in the Oases

                                   Saint Martha the Egyptian

                                   Martyrdom of Saint Alladyus the Bishop

                                   Cosmas I, 44th patriarch of Alexandria

                                   Anba Abraam, bishop of Fayyum (A.D. 1914)

4—29                         Martyrdom of Saint Sinusyus

                                   Martyrdom of Saint Ammon and Saint Sophia

                                   Martyrdom of Saint Yuhanna al-Hiraqli (John of Heraclea) Saint Apa Hor

                                   John VIII, 80th patriarch of Alexandria

5—30                         Saint Jacob the Oriental (al-Mashriqi) Martyrdom of Anba Bishoi and Anba Butrus Dedication of
                                   Saint Victor’s Church at Shu

6—31                         Martyrdom of Saint Theodorus the Ascetic

7 Ba’unah—1 June Martyrdom of Saint Abiskhrun the Soldier

8—2                           Dedication of the Church of the Virgin at al-Mihmah

                                   Saint Tamada and her children, and Saint Armanus and his mother

                                   Martyrdom of Jirjis al-Jadid (the Isma‘ilite) (A.D. 1387)

9—3                           Saint Samuel the Prophet

                                   Martyrdom of Saint Lucilianus and four companions

                                   Translation of the remains of Saint Mercurius to Egypt

10—4                         Martyrdom of Saint Dabamon

                                   Closure of the pagan temples and opening of churches

                                   John XVI, 103rd patriarch of Alexandria

                                   Demetrius II, 111th patriarch of Alexandria

11—5                         Martyrdom of Saint Claudius

                                   Dedication of the Altar of the Forty Martyrs in the Church of the Resurrection

12—6                         Justus, 6th patriarch of Alexandria Cyril II, 67th patriarch of Alexandria Commemoration of
                                   Archangel Michael Saint Euphemia

13—7                         Saint John, bishop of Jerusalem

                                   Archangel Gabriel and Daniel the Prophet

14—8                         John XIX, 113th patriarch of Alexandria

                                   Martyrdom of Saints Apa Kr (Cyrus), John, Ptolemeus, and Philip

15—9                         Transfer of the remains of Saint Mark the Apostle (from Italy to Cairo) by Paul VI, pope of Rome

                                   Dedication of the Church of Saint Mena in Mareotis

16—10                       Saint Onophrius (Apa Nofer) the Wanderer

17—11                       Depositing of the remains of Saint Mark in the new Saint Mark’s Cathedral (in Cairo)

                                   Saint Latson of Bahnasa (al-Bahnasawi)

18—12                       Dedication of Saint Mark’s Cathedral in Dayr Anba Ruways

                                   Damian, 35th patriarch of Alexandria

19—13                       Celebration of the first liturgy in the new Saint Mark’s Cathedral (June 1968)

                                   Achillas, 18th patriarch of Alexandria

                                   Martyrdom of Saint George, known as Jirjis al-Muzauim (A.D. 959)

                                   Martyrdom of Saint Bishay Anub at ‘Ayn Shams (Heliopolis)

20—14                       Elijah the Prophet

21—15                       Dedication of the first Church of the Virgin Mary in Philippi

                                   Martyrdom of Saint Timotheus the Egyptian

                                   Cerdon, 4th patriarch of Alexandria

22—16                       Dedication of the Church of Saints Cosmas and Damian, Their Brothers, and Their Mother in a
                                   city of the land of the Arabs

23—17                       Saint Apa Nob the Confessor

24—18                       Saint Moses the Black

25—19                       Martyrdom of Judas, one of the seventy disciples

                                   Peter IV, 34th patriarch of Alexandria

26—20                       The Prophet Yashu’ (Joshua) ibn Nun

                                   Dedication of the Church of the Archangel Gabriel

27—21                       Martyrdom of Saint Ananias the Disciple

                                   Martyrdom of Saint Tumas (Thomas) al-Shandalati

28—22                       Theodosius I, 33rd patriarch of Alexandria

                                   Dedication of the Church of Anba Sarapamon, bishop of Nikiou

29—23                       Martyrdom of the seven ascetics on the mountain of Tunah

                                   Martyrdom of Saints Apa Hor, Anba Bishoi (Bishay), and their mother, Diodora (Theodora)

30—24                       Nativity of Saint John the Baptist

MONTH OF ABIB (JUNE-JULY)

1 Abib—25 June      Martyrdom of Saint Afrunyah (Febronia) the Ascetic

                                   Saints Biyukhah and Binayin, priests

2—26                         Saint Thaddaeus the Disciple

3—27                         Cyril I, 24th patriarch of Alexandria

                                   Saint Celestine, pope of Rome

4—28                         Translation of the remains of Saints Apa Kir (Cyrus) and Yuhanna (John)

5—29                         Martyrdom of the Apostles Peter and Paul

6—30                         Martyrdom of Saints Olimpas the Disciple and Theodosia and her companions

7 Abib—1 July         Saint Shenute, Father of the Hermits

                                   Martyrdom of Saint Ignatius, bishop of Antioch, at Rome

8—2                           Anba Bishoi the Saint

                                   Martyrdom of Abiruh (Piru) and Atom Martyrdom of Saint Balana the presbyter Martyrdom of
                                   Anba Bimanun (Epima)

                                   Saint Karas (Cyrus), brother of Emperor Theodosius

9—3                           Martyrdom of Saint Simeon (son of) Kluba the Disciple

                                   Celadion, 9th patriarch of Alexandria

10—4                         Martyrdom of Saint Theodorus, bishop of the Five Towns

                                   Martyrdom of Saint Theodorus, bishop of Corinthos, and his companions

                                   Gabriel VII, 95th patriarch of Alexandria

11—5                         Martyrdom of Saints John and Simeon, his cousin

                                   Saint Isaiah the Hermit

12—6                         Commemoration of Archangel Michael

                                   Martyrdom of Saint Apa-Hor of Siryaqus

13—7                         Saint Pisentius, bishop of Qift

                                   Martyrdom of Saint Abamun of Tukh

                                   Martyrdom of Anba Shinudah, at the beginning of the Arab period

14—8                         Martyrdom of Saint Procopius of Jerusalem

                                   Peter V, 83rd patriarch of Alexandria

15—9                         Saint Ephraem the Syrian (A.D. 379)

                                   Martyrdom of Saint Cyriacus and Julita, his mother

                                   Martyrdom of Saint Hursiyus (Horsiesios)

16—10                       Saint John of the Golden Gospel

                                   Translation of the body of the martyr Saint George to Old Cairo

17—11                       Martyrdom of Saint Euphemia

18—12                       Martyrdom of Saint Jacob the Apostle, bishop of Jerusalem

19—13                       Martyrdom of Saints Bidaba, bishop of Qift, and Anba Andrew and Christodoulus

                                   Martyrdom of Saint Batlan (Pantaleon) the Physican

                                   John X, 85th patriarch of Alexandria

20—14                       Martyrdom of Saint Theodorus of Shotep (A.D. 220)

21—15                       Saint Susinius the Eunuch

22—16                       Martyrdom of Saint Macarius, son of Basilides, minister of Diocletian

                                   Martyrdom of Saint Leontius of Tripoli

23—17                       Martyrdom of Saint Longinus the General

                                   Martyrdom of Saint Marina

24—18                       Martyrdom of Saint Apa-Nob

                                   Simon I, 42nd patriarch of Alexandria

25—19                       Saint Thecla, follower of the Apostle Paul

                                   Martyrdom of Saint Isaac Martyrdom of Saint Hilaria Martyrdom of Saints Thecla and Muj

                                   Martyrdom of Saint Antoninus (Andura) Martyrdom of Saint Aba Krajon

                                   Martyrdom of Saint Domadius the Syrian

                                   Dedication of the Church of Abu Sayfayn

                                   Saint Palamon, Father of the Monks (A.D. 316)

26—20                       Saint Joseph the Carpenter

                                   Timothy I, 22nd patriarch of Alexandria

27—21                       Dedication of the Church of Epiphanius

                                   Martyrdom of Saint Abamun of Tarnut in Upper Egypt

28—22                       Saint Mary Magdalene

29—23                       Translation of the remains of Saint Andrew the Apostle

                                   Martyrdom of Saint Barsanuphius

30—24                       Martyrdom of Saints Mercurius and Ephraem

MONTH OF MISRA OR MESORE (JULY-AUGUST)

1 Misra—25 July      Martyrdom of Saint Apoli, son of Justus

                                   Cyril V, 112th patriarch of Alexandria

2—26                         Commemoration of Saint Ba’issah of Minuf

3—27                         Translation of the body of Saint Simeon Stylite to Antioch

                                   Primus, 5th patriarch of Alexandria

4—28                         Ezekiel the King

                                   Dedication of the Church of Saint Anthony

5—29                         Saint John, the general of Julian the Apostate

6—30                         Martyrdom of Saint Julita

7—31                         Annunciation of the birth of the Virgin Mary to Saint Joachim

                                   Timothy II, 26th patriarch of Alexandria

8 Misra—1 Aug.       Martyrdom of Saint Lazarus, his wife Salome, and their children

                                   The Apostle Peter’s confession that Christ is the Son of God

9—2                           Martyrdom of Saint Uri of Shatanuf

10—3                         Martyrdom of Saint Bikhibis (Bikabes) of Ashmun Tanah

11—4                         Anba Moses, bishop of Awsim

12—5                         Commemoration of the archangel Michael

                                   Accession of Constantine the Great

13—6                         Transfiguration of Our Lord on Tur Tabur

14—7                         Theodosius, 33rd patriarch of Alexandria

15—8                         Saint Mary, better known as Marina the Ascetic

16—9                         Ascension of the body of Mary the Virgin

                                   Matthew IV, 102nd patriarch of Alexandria

17—10                       Martyrdom of Saint Jacob the Soldier

18—11                       Alexandros, patriarch of Constantinople

                                   Martyrdom of Saint Eudamon of Armant

19—12                       Return of the body of Saint Macarius to his monastery in Shihat

20—13                       Martyrdom of the seven youths of Ephesus

21—14                       Commemoration of Our Lady, Mother of God

                                   Saint Irene, daughter of King Licinius

22—15                       Micah the Prophet

                                   Martyrdom of Saint Hadid of Giza (A.D. 1387)

23—16                       Martyrdom of thirty thousand Christians in Alexandria

                                   Martyrdom of Saint Damian of Antioch

24—17                       Saint Thecla Haymanot the Abyssinian

                                   Saint Thomas, bishop of Mar‘ash in Syria

25—18                       Saint Bessarion the Great

                                   Macarius III, 114th patriarch of Alexandria

26—19                       Martyrdom of Saint Moses and his sister, Sarah

                                   Martyrdom of Saint Agapius the Soldier and his sister, Thecla

27—20                       Martyrdom of Saint Benjamin and his sister, Eudoxia

                                   Martyrdom of Saint Mary the Armenian

28—21                       Commemoration of the saintly fathers Abraham, Jacob, and Isaac

29—22                       Martyrdom of Saint Athanasius the Bishop, and Saints Jerasimus and Theodotus

                                   Advent of the body of Saint John Colobus into the Shihat wilderness

30—23                       Malachi the Prophet

INTERCALARY DAYS OF NASI (AUGUST)

1 Nasi—24 Aug.       Saint Eutychius, disciple of Saint John the Evangelist

                                   Martyrdom of Saint Bishoi of Antioch

2—25                         Saint Titus, disciple of Saint Paul

3—26                         Commemoration of Archangel Raphael

                                   Martyrdom of Saint Andrianus

                                   John XIV, 96th patriarch of Alexandria

4—27                         Saint Liberius, bishop of Rome

                                   Anba Bimin (Poemen) the Hermit

5—28                         Father Jacob, bishop of Misr

                                   Amos the Prophet

                                   Saint Barsum the Naked

                                   John XV, 99th patriarch of Alexandria

6—29                         Thanks be to God the High

LIST OF THE MOVABLE FEASTS Easter

Holy Thursday

Pentecost

BIBLIOGRAPHY

  • Balestri, J., and H. Hyvernat. Acta martyrum, 2 vols. CSCO, Scriptores Coptici. Paris, 1907-1924.
  • Budge, E. A. W. Coptic Martyrdoms in the Dialect of Upper Egypt. London, 1914.
  • Holweck, F. G. A Biographical Dictionary of the Saints. London, 1924.
  • O’Leary, De L. The Saints of Egypt. New York, 1937; Amsterdam, 1974.
  • Till, W. Koptische Heiligen- und Märtyrerlegenden, 2 vols. Orientalia Christiana Analecta 102 and 108. Rome, 1935-1936.

AZIZ S. ATIYA

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