Borsai, Ilona (1925-1982)
After graduating from the University of Kolozsvar, in her native city of Cluj, Rumania, qualified to teach Greek and French languages, Ilona Borsai attended the Academy of Music in Budapest, Hungary, where she received the Diploma of Music Education. Completing further studies in the field of musicology under Bence Szalolcsi, she began to work in research in folk music under the direction of Zoltán Kodály at the Academy of Science. Having retired in 1978, she died in Budapest on July 8, 1982.
Her research led into musicological studies of Egyptian music, pharaonic, folk, and Coptic. During three visits to Egypt, she made many recordings of folk and Coptic music in 1967-1968 to collect recordings for transcriptions and analyses, in 1969 to attend the Second Conference of Arab Music where she presented a paper, and in 1970 to follow up on the studies and recordings of Coptic music. As a result of these visits she produced a number of transcriptions in collaboration with Margit Tóth and publications describing the results of her research (see bibliography).
She was member of the Coptic Archeological Society, the Hungarian Ethnolographical Society, the Association of Hungarian Musicians, the Hungarian Society of Studies of Antiquities, the International Association of Hungarian Studies, the Hungarian Kodály Society, and the International Association of Coptic Studies.
Her pioneering research into the details of the historical, analytical, and liturgical significance of Coptic music opened the field of Coptic musicology and defined its direction. Her contribution has had an impact not only on Coptic studies but also on all research concerning music whose historical roots have been transmitted through the centuries by oral tradition.
Hickmann, Hans (1908-1968)
Hickmann, a German musicologist, was known primarily as an authority on the musical instruments of ancient Egypt. He devoted much study to the music of the Coptic church, which he felt was a living link between the past and the present (for more details of his research into the Coptic musical tradition, see Oral Tradition, History, and Musical Instruments, above, and Transcriptions in Western Notation, below).
Born 19 May, 1908, in Rosslau bei Dessau, Germany, he received his early education in Halle and continued his studies in musicology at the University of Berlin under the direction of some of the most distinguished scholars of the time, including Erich M. von Hornbostel and Curt Sachs. After his graduation in 1934, he studied at the Staatliche Akademie für Kirchen- und Schulmusik (Berlin-Charlottenberg) and the Berliner Hochschule fur Musik. His interest in Eastern music was first aroused by a field trip to the Siwa Oasis (1932-1933), sponsored by the Berliner Phonogrammarchiv. In 1933, he settled in Cairo, and from here he conducted extensive investigations into the music of Egypt for more than two decades.
From 1949 to 1952, he lectured in many countries of Western Europe. In 1957 he left Egypt because of political conditions and returned to Germany to head the department of Ethnomusicology at the University of Hamburg (see Transcriptions in Western Notation, below). In 1958, as the new director of the Musikhistorisches Studio (Archiv-Produktion) of the Deutsche Grammophon Gesellschaft in Hamburg, he produced many recordings of ancient music, all of great scholarship and authenticity. He died 4 September 1968, in Blandford Forum, Dorset, England.
His published works cover more than three decades (1934-1968, plus articles published posthumously). A comprehensive bibliography, comprising some 198 entries, is listed in the Journal of the Society of Ethnomusicology, vol. IX, no. 1 (January 1965), pp. 45-53, and vol. XII, no. 2 (May 1969), pp. 317-19.
Newlandsmith, Ernest (1875-? [after 1936])
British violinist, composer, and writer, best known for his extensive transcriptions of Coptic liturgical music.
The son of a clergyman, he was born 10 April, 1875. Having shown a talent for music, he entered the Royal Academy of Music in 1893, from which he graduated with distinction in 1899, earning the A.R.A.M. (Associate of Royal Academy of Music). Disillusioned as a music teacher and concert violinist, he turned his back on music as a profession (1908) and became a “pilgrim” or “minstrel friar.” Henceforth, he traveled through the countryside presenting musical religious services and living by the generosity of others.
In 1926 he undertook a musical pilgrimage to the Holy Land. En route, he stopped at Cairo where he met Ragheb Moftah (see Cantors, above), who arranged for him to compile a book of liturgical music of the ancient Coptic church. Newlandsmith continued his journey to the Holy Land (Mount Carmel), but soon returned to Cairo. Here, as the guest of Mr. Moftah, he lived in a houseboat on the Nile, notating the music as chanters—among them the great master chanter Mu‘allim MIKHA’IL JIRJIS (see Cantors, above)—sang their time-honored melodies hour after hour, day after day (1926-1931). He also spent some time at Abu al-Shuquq working with Mr. Moftah on the transcriptions (1929).
The complete project lasted about ten years (1926-1936), and during this time, Newlandsmith transcribed some sixteen folio volumes of music, including the Liturgy of Saint Basil (vol. 1), numerous other special songs for the various feasts and fasts, and special songs reserved for high church officials.
Impressed by the dignity and beauty of this music, Newlandsmith used certain melodies in his own violin compositions, and upon return trips to England (1928, 1931), he played these works as part of his music services. He also gave enthusiastic lectures about the antiquity of the Coptic musical tradition.
During his life Newlandsmith founded various musical-religious societies, the most significant being “The New Life Movement.” A prolific writer, he penned several pamphlets and books wherein he expounded his ideas about music.
A bibliography of his early musical compositions is listed in the Universal Handbuch der Musikliteratur aller Zeiten und Völker (Vienna, n. d.), vol. 1, Pt. 1, p. 124. He based his later works on Coptic melodies, of which two, dating from 1929, remain significant: his Oriental Suite for violin and piano, and the Carmelite Rhapsody for solo violin.
Transcriptions in Western Notation
Although there may be some pieces of evidence of a notation system using dots and a primitive ekphonetic notation for Coptic music, the Copts have preserved their music over the centuries essentially by means of an oral tradition (see Oral Tradition, above). Only in the nineteenth century did scholars begin to transcribe Coptic melodies using the notation system established for Western music. Guillaume Andre Villoteau, a French scholar who was part of Napoleon’s expedition to Egypt, was the first to attempt such a transcription when he devoted some five pages of his Description de l’Egypte (1809) to an Alleluia from the Divine Liturgy. Later, near the end of the nineteenth century, other transcriptions were made by Jules Blin (Chants liturgiques coptes, 1888) and Louis Badet (Chants liturgiques des Coptes, 1899). Whereas Blin’s transcriptions are unreliable, those of Badet are fairly accurate as to the general scheme of the melodies.
In the twentieth century, Kamil Ibrahim Ghubriyal published a small volume of transcriptions of hymns and responsoria, Al- Tawqi‘at al-Musiqiyyah li-Maraddat al-Kanisah al-Murqusiyyah (1916). Unlike previous transcribers, Ghubriyal, a lieutenant in the Egyptian army, was a Copt, and deeply steeped in the musical tradition of his church. He designed his transcriptions for Coptic youth, and in an effort to make them more attractive to his audience, he adapted them for piano, adding a rhythmic accompaniment (no harmony, notes at the octave only) and making certain changes in the pitch and rhythm of the vocal melodies. Notwithstanding such obvious alterations, the basic melodic line was kept intact, and Ghubriyal is to be recognized for his pioneering efforts as a Copt seeking to notate the music of his people.
Nearly one generation later, one of the most ambitious efforts in this regard was undertaken by the English musicologist Ernest Newlandsmith (see Musicologists, above), who came to Egypt at the invitation and sponsorship of Ragheb Moftah for the express purpose of transcribing the music of the Coptic services. From 1926 to 1936 he compiled, from listening to the best Coptic cantors, some sixteen folio volumes of music, which include the entire Liturgy of Saint Basil, and other important hymns, responsoria, and so on, reserved for special feasts (vol. 1 alone comprises more than 100 pages).
Because he felt that the abundant ornamentation in Coptic music was primarily “Arabic debris,” Newlandsmith tended to ignore most of the embellishments. Thus, his transcriptions depict simple melodic lines, adapted to the rhythms and key signatures of the West. Nevertheless, for that part of Coptic music which is devoid of embellishment, these transcriptions compare favorably with the work of recent scholars, and his vast corpus of notation offers much material for comparative study and analysis.
All the foregoing transcribers, not having the advantage of recording equipment, had no way to compare what they heard with what they had notated. Hence, many intricacies of rhythm and intonation were neither perceived nor indicated accurately. Fortunately, when, in the 1950s, interested musicologists began to work with tapes, they were able to produce transcriptions of much greater detail and accuracy.
Among these scholars were Hans Hickmann and René Ménard, who, working both separately and together, transcribed a few short pieces. Ménard, by slowing the tape, was able to hear, and thus notate the embellishments with more exactitude than had been possible before. In so doing, he observed that the Western notation system cannot really indicate all the nuances of rhythm and expression inherent in Coptic music, and suggested that certain ancient signs used in notating Gregorian chant might be useful.
Following directives of Hickmann, scholars in the Ethnomusicology Laboratory at the University of Hamburg, employing the most modern acoustical equipment which allowed them to record the exact oscillations of the sound waves, notated the complicated variances of intonation in Coptic music to the nearest quarter-tone.
In 1967, Ilona Borsai (See Musicologists, above) went to Egypt to collect materials for study and analysis. During her short span of ethnomusicological studies, she was able to publish some seventeen articles containing transcriptions and observations on facets of Coptic music never before touched upon.
In 1969, Margit Tóth, also of Hungary, came to Cairo to study Coptic music. Working with Ragheb Moftah and the recordings he had made, she, like Newlandsmith, notated the entire Liturgy of Saint Basil. By using the new methods for recording and playback, she has completed transcriptions of enormous detail, wherein not only the audible embellishments are transcribed, but also auxiliary tones discernable only at a slow tempo. This project will enable scholars to make many comparative studies and analyses.
In the late 1970s, Marian Robertson, of the United States, also working with tapes, began transcribing excerpts from the Liturgy of Saint Basil and Holy Week services. Having specialized thus far in music sung by the choir, in which the embellishments are somewhat blurred by the individuality of each singer, Robertson has not transcribed the ornamentation with the same detail as Tóth. Explanations in accompanying texts serve to describe the phenomenon produced by the varying vibratos and embellishments of the performers.
In 1976, Nabil Kamal Butros, violin teacher in the Faculty of Music Education at Helwan University and a member of the Arabic Classical Music Ensemble, completed a master’s thesis, “Coptic Music and Its Relation to Pharaonic Music,” in which he made a comparative transcription and analysis of one hymn as sung by several different choirs.
Although Western notation was not designed for transcribing Coptic music, it may be the form in which this ancient music from the Near East will at last be written. By comparing the various transcriptions of dedicated scholars, one may at least glimpse the complexity and variety of the Coptic musical tradition.
In recent years, strictly nonliturgical songs have been developed for use in the Sunday schools. They bear the general title alhan, but thirteen, composed especially in honor of the Virgin Mary, are designated taranim (sing. tarnimah). Both the alhan and taranim have texts of praise and worship, strophic in form. Sung antiphonally or in unison by both men and women, they are monophonic. Quite distinct in style from both Arabic chanting of the Qur’an and Coptic liturgical melody, they betray much Western influence, for example, the singing is always accompanied by the violin, piano, and/or organ; this instrumental accompaniment has rudimentary harmony; and some songs borrow phrases from well-known Western melodies such as Handel’s “Joy to the World” and Mendelssohn’s “Hark! The Herald Angels Sing.” They may be described as light-hearted, charming, and attractive to youth. However, Coptic purists decry their existence and maintain that they have neither the dignity nor the spirituality of the ancient liturgical tradition.
- Alhan Muhibbah and Taranim wa Mada’ih lil-Sayyidah al-‘Adhra.
- Twelve records of nonliturgical music made in Cairo (8-968053-
- 8-968065). In the Audio-Visual Department, Marriott Library, University of Utah.
- Alhan Special to Popes and Bishops, ed. Ragheb Moftah. Recorded at the Higher Institute of Coptic Studies. Cairo, 1983.
- Catalogue d’enregistrements de la musique folklorique égyptienne, ed. H. Hickmann and Charles Grégoire duc de Mecklembourg. Strasbourg and Baden-Baden, 1958.
- The Complete Liturgy of St. Basil, ed. Ragheb Moftah. Recorded at the Higher Institute of Coptic Studies. Cairo, 1965.
- The Coptic Liturgy of St. Gregory, ed. Ragheb Moftah. Recorded at the Higher Institute of Coptic Studies. Cairo, 1984.
- The Coptic Marriage Service, ed. Ragheb Moftah. Recorded at the Higher Institute of Coptic Studies. Cairo, 1984.
- Coptic Music. Recorded in the Coptic Cathedral of Saint Mark, with notes by Aziz S. Atiya. Folkways Records, FR 8960. New York, 1960.
- Doxologies and Their Hymns for the Virgin Mary and the Saints. ed. Ragheb Moftah. Recorded at the Higher Institute of Coptic Studies. Cairo, 1984.
- The Holy Week Services, ed. Ragheb Moftah. Recorded at the Higher Institute of Coptic Studies. Cairo, 1972.
- The Liturgy of St. Basil, sung by Mu‘allim Sadiq, ed. Ragheb Moftah. Recorded at the Higher Institute of Coptic Studies. Cairo, 1968.
- The Order of Evening Prayers (Taqs Tasbihat ‘Ashiyyah), ed. Ragheb Moftah. Recorded at the Higher Institute of Coptic Studies. Cairo, 1976.
- The Order of Midnight Prayers (Taqs Tasbihat Nisf al-Layl), ed. Ragheb Moftah. Recorded at the Higher Institute of Coptic Studies. Cairo, 1978.
- The Ritual for the Feast of the Resurrection, ed. Ragheb Moftah. Recorded at the Higher Institute of Coptic Studies. Cairo, 1974.
- Selections from the Liturgy of St. Basil, with Commentary by Aziz S. Atiya, ed. Ragheb Moftah. Recorded at the Higher Institute of Coptic Studies. Cairo, 1955.
- Special Hymns for the Patriarchs and Bishops, ed. Ragheb Moftah. Recorded at the Higher Institute of Coptic Studies. Cairo, 1980.
Books and Articles
- ‘Abd al-Masih, Y. “Doxologies in the Coptic Church.” Bulletin de la Société d’archéologie copte 4 (1938):97-99; 5 (1939):175-78; 6 (1940):19-25; 7 (1942):31-61; 11 (1945):95-158.
- . “The Hymn of the Three Children in the Furnace.” Bulletin de la Société d’archéologie copte 12 (1946-1947):1-15.
- . “A Greco-Arab Psali.” Bulletin de l’Institut des études coptes (1958):77-100.
- Amélineau, E. C. “Saint Antoine et les commencements du monachisme chrétien en Egypte.” Revue d’histoire et de littérature religieuses 65 (1912):16-78.
- Atiya, A. S. History of Eastern Christianity. Notre Dame, Ind., 1968.
- . Catalogue Raisonné of the Mount Sinai Arabic Manuscripts. Trans. into Arabic by J. N. Yussef. Alexandria, 1970.
- Badet, L. Chants liturgiques des Coptes. Cairo, 1899.
- Baumstark, A. Comparative Liturgy. Revised by Bernard Botte, O.S.B. English edition by F. L. Cross. London, 1958.
- Bennet, J. P. “Music in the Coptic Church of Egypt and Ethiopia.” Unpublished M.A. thesis. Seattle, 1945.
- Blin, J. Chants liturgiques coptes. Cairo, 1888.
- Borsai, I. “A la recherche de l’ancienne musique pharaonique” Cahiers d’histoire égyptienne 11 (1968):25-42.
- . “Mélodies traditionnelles des Egyptiens et leur importance dans la recherche de l’ancienne musique pharaonique.” Studia Musicologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 10 (1968):69-
- Musical transcriptions made in collaboration with Margit Tóth.
- . “Quelques traits caractéristiques de la musique copte.” I Congresso Internazionale Grottoferrata, Roma, 6-11 May, 1968. Studia Musicologica, 10 (1968):360-63.
- . “Az egyiptomi zenei szájhagyomány vizsgálátának szerepe az o-egyiptomi dallamok kutatásában.” A. M. Tud. Akadémia I, Osztályának Kozleményei 26 (1969):387-99.
- . “Variations ornementales dans l’interprétation d’un hymne copte.” Studia Musicologica Academiae Scientiarum
- Hungaricae 11 (1969):91-105. With musical transcriptions by Margit Tóth.
- . “Concordances et divergences entre les mélodies coptes et celles du fellah égyptien.” Deuxième Congrès Internationale de Musique Arabe au Caire, 16-23. December, 1969. Studia Musicologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 12 (1970):325-30.
- . “Melody Types of Egyptian Wedding Songs.” Acta Ethnographica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 19 (1970):65-81. With musical transcriptions by Margit Tóth.
- . “Caractéristiques générales du chant de la messe copte.” Studia orientalia christiana aegyptiaca, collectanea 14 (1970-1971):412-42.
- . “Un Type mélodique particulier des hymnes coptes du mois de Kiahk.” Studia Musicologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 13 (1971):73-85.
- . “Le Tropaire byzantin ‘O Monogenés’ dans la pratique du chant copte.” Studia Musicologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 14 (1972):329-54.
- . “Y a-t-il un ‘Octoéchos’ dans le système du chant copte?” Studia Aegyptíaca 1 (1974):39-53.
- . “Die musikhistorische Bedeutung der orientalischen christlichen Riten.” Studia Musicologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 16 (1974):3-14.
- . “A kisebb keleti egyházak liturgikus zenéjének zenetudomanyi jelentösége.” Vigilia 6 (1974):404-9.
- . “Mélodies coptes des textes grecs byzantins.” Actes du 14e Congrés International des Etudes Byzantines, Bucharest, 6-12 September 1971. Editura Academiei Republicii Socialiste Roumania (1976):493-503.
- . “Deux mélodies caracteristiques de la semaine sainte copte.” Studies in Eastern Chant 4 (1979):5-27.
- . “Mélodie et métrique dans les théotokies coptes.” Studia Musicologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 22 (1980):15-60.
- . “Music of the Coptic Rite.” The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 6th ed. Vol. 4, pp. 70ff., ed. Stanley Sadie. London, Washington, D.C., and Hong Kong, 1980.
- Brightman, F. E. Liturgies Eastern and Western, Vol. 1. Eastern Liturgies. Oxford, 1896.
- Budge, E. A. W., trans. and ed. The Paradise or Garden of the Holy Fathers. . . . London, 1907.
- . trans. The Wit and Wisdom of the Christian Fathers of Egypt. . . . Oxford and London, 1934.
- Burmester, O. H. E. The Egyptian or Coptic Church in Cairo, A Detailed Description of Her Liturgical Services and the Rites and Ceremonies Observed in the Administration of Her Sacraments. Cairo, 1967.
- Bute, J. P. The Coptic Morning Service for the Lord’s Day. London, 1882.
- Butros, N. K. “Coptic Music and Its Relation to Pharaonic Music.” Unpublished M. A. thesis, Helwan University. Cairo, 1976.
- Cramer, M. “Studien zu koptischen Pascha-Buchern.” Oriens Christianus 47 (1963):118f.; 49 (1965):90-115; 50 (1966):72-130.
- . Koptische Hymnologie in deutscher Übersetzung (Eine Auswahl aus saïdischen und bohairischen Antiphonarien vom 9. Jahrhundert bis zur Gegenwart). Wiesbaden, 1969.
- Euringer, S. “Der mütmassliche Verfasser der koptischen Theotokia.” Oriens Christianus (1911):225f.
- Faulkner, R.O., trans. Songs of Isis and Nepthys. Described by H. G. Farmer, “The Music of Ancient Egypt.” In Ancient and Oriental Music, pp. 253-82. The New Oxford History of Music, ed. E. Wallesz, Vol. 1. London, 1966.
- Ghubriyal, Kamil Ibrahim. Al-Tawqi‘at al-Musiqiyyah li-Maraddat al-Kanisah al-Murqusiyyah. Cairo, 1916.
- Gillespie, J. “The Egyptian Copts and Their Music.” Notes preceding the Translation of the Liturgy of St. Basil. n.p., n.d.
- Graf, G., trans. and ed. “Der kirchliche Gesang nach Abu Ishaq . . .” Extracts from The Foundation of Religion by Ibn al-Assal. Bulletin de la Société d’archéologie copte 13 (1948-1949):161-78.
- Hickmann, E. Musica Instrumentalis (Studien zur Klassifikation des Musikinstrumentariums im Mittelalter). Baden-Baden, 1971. Hickman, H. “Un Instrument à cordes inconnu de l’époque copte.”
- Bulletin de la Société d’archéologie copte 12 (1946-1947):63-80.
- . “Note sur une harpe au Musée du Caire—sur l’accordage des instruments à cordes. Miscellanea Musicologica” Annales du Service des Antiquités de l’Egypte 48 (1948):639-63.
- . “La Cliquette, un instrument de percussion égyptien de l’époque copte.” Bulletin de la Société d’archéologie copte 13 (1948-1949):1-12.
- . Catalogue général des antiquités égyptiennes du Musée du Caire, Nos. 69201-69852, Instruments de Musique. Cairo, 1949.
- . “Observations sur les survivances de la chironomie égyptienne dans le chant liturgique copte.” Miscellanea Musicologica (1949):417-45.
- . “Quelques observations sur la musique liturgique copte des Coptes d’Egypte.” Atti del congresso internazionale di musica sacra, Rome (1950):100f.
- . “La Castagnette egyptienne.” Bulletin de la Société d’archéologie copte 14 (1950-1957):37-49.
- . “Miscellanea egyptologica.” Journal of the Galpin Society 4 (1951):25-29.
- . “Zur Geschichte der altägyptischen Glocken.” Musik und Kirche 21 (1951):72-88.
- . 45 Siècles de Musique dans l’Egypte ancienne à travers la sculpture, la peinture, l’instrument. Paris, 1956.
- . “Le Problème de la notation musicale dans l’Egypte ancienne.” Die Musikforschung 10 (1957):512-18.
- . “Musikerziehung im alten Ägypten.” Festschrift für H. Mersmann, pp. 55-63. Kassel, 1957.
- . “Quelques nouveaux aspects du rôle de la musique copte dans l’histoire de la musique en Egypte.” Bulletin de la Société d’archéologie copte 15 (1958-1960):79-82.
- . Musikgeschichte in Bildern. Ägypten, Vol. 2.: Musik des Altertums, pt. 1. Leipzig, 1961.
- . “Altägyptische Musik.” In Der Nahe und der Mittelere Osten, pp. 135-70. Orientalische Musik, ed. B. Spuler, et al., supplementary vol. 4. Leiden, 1970.
- Ibn Kabar. Le Muséon 36 (1923):249-92; 37 (1924):201-80; 38 (1925):261-320.
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- Jourdan-Hemmerdinger, D. “Nouveaux fragments musicaux sur papyrus (une notation antique par points).” Studies in Eastern Chant 4 (1979):81-111.
- Lanne, E. “Textes et rites de la liturgie pascale dans l’ancienne église copte.” L’Orient syrien 6/1 (1961):279-300.
- Luqa Sayyid Sidarus. pijwm nte pipac,a eyouab. (The Book of Holy Easter). Cairo, 1981.
- Mallon, A. “Les Théotokies ou l’Office de la Sainte Vièrge dans le rite copte.” Revue de l’orient chrétien 9 (1904):17-31.
- Mearns, J. Canticles of the Christian Church. Cambridge, 1914. Ménard, R. “Note sur les musiques arabe et copte.” Cahiers coptes 2 (1952):48-54.
- . “Notes sur les musiques arabe et copte.” Cahiers coptes 2 (1952):48ff.
- . “Notation et transcription de la musique copte.” Cahiers coptes 3 (1953):34-44.
- . “Une étape de l’art musical égyptien: la musique copte—
- recherches actuelles.” Revue de la musique 36 (1954):21ff.
- . “Note sur la mémorisation et l’improvisation dans le chant copte.” Etudes grégoriennes 4 (1959):135-43.
- Moftah, R. “The Study of the Recording of the Coptic Airs: The
- History of Mu‘allim Mikha’il.” Al-Kirazah, 10, 17, and 14 January (1975).
- . “Coptic Music.” Bulletin de l’Institut des études coptes, (1958):42-53.
- . “Coptic Music.” Saint Mark and the Coptic Church. Cairo, 1968.
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- Muyser, J. “Le ‘Psali’ copte pour la première heure du samedi de la joie.” Le Muséon 65 (1952):175-84.
- . “Un ‘Psali’ acrostiche copte.” Le Muséon 66 (1953):31-40. Newlandsmith, E. Religion and the Arts. London, 1918.
- . A Minstrel Friar. London, 1927.
- . “The Music of the Mass as Sung in the Coptic Church, and Some Special Hymns in the Coptic Liturgy.” Sixteen Folio Volumes of unpublished transcriptions, Vols. 1 and 2. Cairo, 1929-1933. Subsequent vols. are not dated.
- . “The Ancient Music of the Coptic Church,” lecture delivered at the University Church, Oxford. London, 1931.
- . A Musician’s Pilgrimage. London, 1932.
- O’Curry, E. On the Manners and Customs of the Ancient Irish, ed. with an Introduction, Appendices, and Notes by W. K. Sullivan. New York, 1971.
- O’Leary, De L. The Daily Office and Theotokia of the Coptic Church. London, 1911.
- . The Coptic Theotokia. London, 1923.
- . The Difnar (Antiphonarium) of the Coptic Church. London, 1926-1930.
- Périer, J., ed. and trans. La Perle précieuse . . . by Ibn Siba‘. Paris, 1922.
- Philuthawus al-Maqari. Kitab Dallal wa Tartib Jum‘at al-Alam wa ‘Id al-Fish al-Majid. Cairo, 1920.
- Reese, G. Music in the Middle Ages with an Introduction on the Music of Ancient Times, pp. 57-94. New York, 1940.
- Robertson, M. “A Transcription and Motivic Analysis of Two Coptic Hymns.” Unpublished manuscript. Salt Lake City, 1980.
- . “Hymns from the Liturgy of St. Basil.” Unpublished manuscripts. Salt Lake City, 1980-1983.
- . “The Modern Coptic Tarnimah, ‘Farahanin, Farahanin’ (We Are Joyful, We Are Joyful’).” Coptologia 5 (1984):77-84.
- . “The Reliability of the Oral Tradition in Preserving Coptic Music: A Comparison of Three Musical Transcriptions of an Extract from the Liturgy of Saint Basil.” Bulletin de la Société d’archéologie copte 26 (1984):83-93; 27 (1985):73-85.
- . “Vocal Music in the Early Coptic Church.” Coptologia 6 (1985):23-27.
- . “The Good Friday Trisagion of the Coptic Church (A Musical Transcription and Analysis).” Miscellany in Honour of Acad. Ivan Dujcev, Sofia, Bulgaria (in press).
- . “A Coptic Melody Sung Interchangeably in Different Languages: Comparisons Thereof and Proposed Dating Therefor.” Paper presented at the Third International Congress of Coptic Studies in Warsaw, Poland, 1984.
- . “Which Came First, the Music or the Words (A Greek Text and Coptic Melody: Musical Transcription and Analysis of the Setting).” In By Study and Also By Faith: Essays in Honor of Hugh Nibley on the Occasion of His Eightieth Birthday, 27
- March 1990, ed. S. D. Ricks, pp. 416ff. Salt Lake City, 1990. Sachs, C. Die Musikinstrumente des alten Ägyptens. Berlin, 1921.
- . Die Musik der Antike. Potsdam, 1935.
- . The Rise of Music in the Ancient World, East and West. New York, 1943.
- Schott, S., ed. and trans. Altägyptische Liebeslieder. Zurich, 1950. Shawan, S. al- “An Annotated Bibliography of Coptic Music.”
- Unpublished M.A. thesis, Columbia University. New York, 1975.
- Sidarous, A. “La Pâque sainte ou la Semaine sainte selon la liturgie copte.” Proche-Orient chrétien 18 (1967):3-43.
- Tawfiq Habib. Alhan al-Kanisah al-Qibtiyyah (melodies of the Coptic church). Lecture given at the Coptic Girls College. Cairo, 30 March 1917.
- Tóth, M. “A Transcription of the Complete Liturgy of St. Basil.” Cairo, 1970-1980.
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