COPTIC

The Coptic Church regarded the Old and New Testaments as a single inseparable unit. The basis of the Coptic version of the is not a text but the Septuagint. The Coptic Bible is based on Greek manuscripts that are older than most of the extant witnesses. However, the Coptic evidence has not yet been systematically applied to a textual criticism of the .

Manuscripts of the Coptic Bible are written in several dialects. The oldest extant Coptic text is preserved in a manuscript of the Proverbs that dates from the late third century. A majority of scholars agree that both the New and Old Testaments must have already been translated from Greek into Coptic by the second half of that century.

We do not possess versions of all the books of the Old Testament. A considerable number of manuscripts from the fourth century provide evidence for the existence of larger or smaller portions of several Old Testament books written in the major , except for the Lycopolitan. Apparently the entire Old Testament had been translated only in , but that translation did not survive in its entirety. The Old Testament was also not completed in Boharic, but the following books have completely survived: the , Psalms, , the , , Jeremiah, , and Daniel.

Proverbs was partly translated. , , 1-4 Kingdoms, 1-2 Chronicles, Wisdom of , and are attested only in liturgical passages. Ruth, , Nehemiah, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon, Esther, Judith, Tobit, and 1-2 are not attested. The Psalms are best documented, for they played an important part in the and were learned by heart. There is not yet a complete critical edition of the and no concordance for any .

The Sahidic and versions of the New Testament have been completely published by G. Horner (The of the New Testament in the Southern Dialect, 7 vols., 1911-1924; The Coptic Version of the New Testament in the Northern Dialect, 4 vols., Oxford 1898-1905). Horner’s edition of the Sahidic New Testament does not represent a homogeneous text, having been edited from many fragments with different dates and provenances. After the appearance of Horner’s edition, many manuscripts containing the complete Sahidic version of one of the New Testament books were published.

They range in date from the 4th or 5th century to the 10th century. Unlike the Sahidic version, there are a number of manuscripts containing complete books of the New Testament written in Bohairic that are unfortunately relatively late. Some manuscripts of other Coptic dialects have been published, such as the Subakhmimic (Lycopolitan) version of the Gospel of , and the Gospel of Matthew in the Middle Egyptian dialect ().

GAWDAT GABRA

Comments

  1. د. حكيم

    السادة المحترمون القائمون على الموقع،
    شكرا لمجهوداتكم الرائعة و لكن أرجو عدم الترجمة للعربية باستخدام التطبيقات الالكترونية لأنها ستنتهى الى نص مشوه كهذا النص و ككل النصوص المترجمة على موقعكم.
    أرجو رفع كل النصوص المترجمة و مراجعتها من قبل مختصين أو على الاقل ملمين بقواعد لغة النص الاصلي و اللغة المترجم إليها حتى لا يفقد موقعكم قيمته و يعزف المهتمون بالتراث القبطي عن ولوجه.
    إن أول شيء يفعله المترجم هو أن يقرأ النص الذي ترجمه قبل رفعه على الموقع و هو بالتأكيد ما لم يفعله المترجم المحترم.
    عذراً لملاحظتي و عوض الرب تعبكم

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