A term of origin signifying “general,” “universal,” and used as a title given to high-ranking officials, and later as an honorary title for certain ecclesiastical dignitaries ranking below a but above a metropolitan.

On 25 June 1959, a protocol was issued in Cairo the relationship between the Church and the Ethiopian church. Article 1 stipulates that the supreme spiritual head of the latter church is the of and the of the see of Saint Mark, while article 4 provides for the elevation of the spiritual head of the Ethiopian church to the rank of patriarch.

Bishop was raised to this rank, and was consecrated at the Cathedral of Saint Mark, Cairo, on 28 June 1959, by CYRIL VI (1959-1971).

  • Neale, J. M. A of the Holy Eastern Church, Vol. 1, p. 141. London, 1850.