Excoucontians

EXCOUCONTIANS The Excoucontians were an Arian sect of the fourth century, and were combated by St. Athanasius. This sect died out after the return of Athanasius to Alexandria in 363. GAWDAT GABRA Tags: History, Groups

Read More

Arianism

ARIANISM Arianism is the doctrine established by Arius. It is important to mention that our primary sources on the Arian crisis are very poor. Most of our knowledge comes from his opponents, that is, Athanasius of Alexandria and others. The Arians played an important role in Church history until their extinction around 395 a.d. Arianism […]

Read More

Castrum

CASTRUM A Roman military camp developed from the so-called marching camp, which was constructed each evening by troops on the march in accordance with a model in force throughout the Roman empire. The uniformity of the camps enabled the soldiers to find their way about and also enabled them to react with speed in the […]

Read More

Higher Institute Of Coptic Studies

HIGHER INSTITUTE OF COPTIC STUDIES This institute was founded by Aziz Suryal Atiya, assisted by Murad Kamil and Sami Gabra, on 21 January 1954 in a building at Anba Ruwais belonging to the Coptic patriarchate. The aim was to launch a study program in Coptology, a field long neglected in Egypt. The institute’s sections are […]

Read More

Apologist

APOLOGIST Apologists is the title given to a group of the Church Fathers who strove in the second century to defend Christianity against pagan attacks. They tried to explain the principles of religion, showing that Christianity is compatible with good citizenship, contrary to the belief that refusing to worship the emperor constituted a plot against […]

Read More

Confraternity

CONFRATERNITY The members of the confraternity were called in Greek philoponoi (the lovers of work) or the spoudaioi (the zealots). They were lay people who undertook a variety of services: caring for the poor, building churches, and assisting in worship services. They are mentioned in the time of St. Athanasius. The canons attributed to Athanasius […]

Read More

Semi-Arians

SEMI-ARIANS A group drawn from among Arian theologians that was founded by Basil of Ancyra around 356. Its members espoused a doctrine of the sonship of Jesus that stood somewhere between the orthodox and the Arian (see ARIANISM) principles. They adopted the HOMOIOUSION theology and leaned toward orthodoxy. Saint ATHANASIUS returned to Alexandria in 362 […]

Read More

Society Of Coptic Archaeology

SOCIETY OF COPTIC ARCHAEOLOGY A scholarly institution founded in Cairo in 1934. The society is a scientific body, with no religious aims or affiliations. It is mainly concerned with publishing, but it has also conducted excavations on Coptic sites. Its main publications are the Bulletin, Excavation Reports, Texts and Documents, Art and Archaeology, and MSS […]

Read More

Anthropomorphism

ANTHROPOMORPHISM The followers of Anthropomorphism believed that God has a human (Anthropos) form or shape (morphe). This affair arose in the late fourth century and the beginning of the fifth century in Egypt, during the patriarchate of Theophilus of Alexandria. The three tall monks of Nitria followed the allegorical interpretation of Origen. Theophilus first supported […]

Read More

Apollinarianism

APOLLINARIANISM Apollinarianism is the dogma instituted by Apollinarius of Laodicea. He was a great friend of Athanasius of Alexandria and rendered him great service, defending orthodoxy against Arianism. But under the influence of Arianism, Apollinarius denied the full human nature of Christ by promulgating that the divine Logos took the place of the nous. Apollinarianism […]

Read More