ANTICHRIST (ἀντίχριστος)

ANTICHRIST (ἀντίχριστος) The word is found in the NT only in 1 Jn 2:18, 22; 4:3, 2 Jn 7, but the idea further appears in the Gospels, the Pauline Epistles, and above all in the Apocalypse. It is not, however, an idea original to Christianity, but an adaptation of Jewish conceptions which, as Bousset has […]

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ANSWER

ANSWER Passing over the very large number of occurrences of this word in the common sense of ‘reply’ (ἀποκρίνομαι, ἀπόκρισις), there are one or two interesting usages to note before we come to the most theologically significant use of the term. Thus in Tit 2:9 slaves are enjoined not to ‘answer again’ (AV; RV ‘gainsay,’ […]

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ANOINTING

ANOINTING Anointing was used in antiquity in three chief connexions: (1) as a part of the toilet, to beautify, strengthen, and refresh the body; (2) medicinally; (3) as a part of religious ceremonial. From the last-named sprang (4) the use of terms of anointing in a metaphorical sense to signify, e.g., the imparting of the […]

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ANNAS (Gr. Ἄννας, Heb. הָנָן)

ANNAS (Gr. Ἄννας, Heb. הָנָן, ‘merciful’ [in Josephus, Ananos]) Annas the son of Sethi, appointed high priest by Quirinius in a.d. 6 or 7, retained office till he was deposed by Valerius Gratus in a.d. 15 (Jos. Ant. XVIII. ii. 1, 2). Josephus tells us that he was regarded as the most fortunate of men, […]

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ANGER

ANGER Human anger.—Except by the stoical mind which finds no place for strong emotion in a moral scheme, anger has been recognized as a quality which, under certain conditions and within certain limits, may not only be permissible but commendable. Its ready abuse has, however, led to its being commonly placed among the evils of […]

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ANGELS OF THE SEVEN CHURCHES

ANGELS OF THE SEVEN CHURCHES The general practice of NT writers points to the conclusion that the word ‘angels,’ used in this connexion, is employed to denote superhuman and celestial personalities. We are not, however, without examples of its being used to indicate ordinary ‘messengers’ (cf. Lk 7:24; 9:52, Ja 2:25, etc.). In this case […]

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ANGELS

ANGELS The scope of this article.—The passages in the apostolic writings in which angels are mentioned or referred to will be examined; some of them are ambiguous and have been interpreted in various ways. The doctrine of the OT and of the apocryphal period on the subject has been so fully dealt with in HDB […]

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ANDRONICUS (Ἀνδρόνικος, a Greek name)

ANDRONICUS (Ἀνδρόνικος, a Greek name) Saluted by St. Paul in Ro 16:7, his name being coupled with that of Junias or Junia.* (1) The pair are described as ‘my kinsmen’ (τοὺς συγγενεῖς μου), by which may be meant fellow-Jews (Ro 9:5), possibly members of the same tribe, almost certainly not relatives. This last interpretation has […]

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ANCHOR (figurative)

ANCHOR (figurative)* In He 6:19 the writer describes the hope set before the Christian, to which he has just referred in the preceding verse, as ‘an anchor of the soul.’ The use of an anchor as a figure of hope was not new, for it is found in pre-Christian Greek and Latin authors, and an […]

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ANATHEMA

ANATHEMA The transliteration of a Gr. word which is used in the LXX to represent the Heb. ḥērem, ‘a person or thing devoted or set apart, under religious sanctions, for destruction’ (Lv 27:28, 29, Jos 6:17). It is capable of use in the good sense of an offering to God, but was gradually confined to […]

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