Arabic Tradition Of Catena

ARABIC TRADITION OF CATENA The Monophysite Coptic chain of the four Gospels has been preserved in full in a series of Arabic manuscripts. F. J. Caubet-Iturbe has edited the part that concerns the Gospel of Matthew from nine Arabic manuscripts (Vatican Library, Arabic 452 [1214], 410 [thirteenth to fourteenth century], 411 [fourteenth century]; Göttingen, Arabic …

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Book Of Canonical Hours

BOOK OF CANONICAL HOURS The first Christians followed the Jewish tradition of praying at fixed times of the day. The prayers for the third, sixth, and ninth hours may have been adopted first in Egypt, where the Jews who converted to Christianity followed the Jewish custom. In the third century, Clement of Alexandria (ca. 150-ca. …

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Confession Of The Fathers (Ca. 1078)

CONFESSION OF THE FATHERS (ca. 1078) Patristic florilegium (literally a “selection of flowers,” like a bouquet; a chain of quotations from selected authorities). The anonymous text known as I‘tiraf al-Aba’ (Confession of the Fathers) is a patristic florilegium. Confession is significant as an assertion and defense of the one-nature (Miaphysite) Christology of the Coptic Church …

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DIDACHE Didache is a Greek word meaning the “teaching of the Apostles.” It was written in the second century. The Metropolitan of Nicomedia, Philotheus Bruennios, discovered it in 1883. The author of this text is likely to have been of Hebraic origins. Many Fathers of the Church such as Clement of Alexandria, Eusebius, and Athanasius …

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DIDASCALIA The book contains the duties of the bishops, the widows, and the deacons. It also gives some details concerning fasting and Holy Week. The Didascalia was written in Greek and later translated into Syriac, Latin, and Arabic. It is believed to reflect the situation of the Church of the third century. It belongs to …

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Difnar (Antiphonarion)

DIFNAR (ANTIPHONARION) A liturgical book that contains a collection of hymns for the whole year. The hymns of the Difnar are sung in the service of the Psalmodia, which follows the office of Complines after the lobsh of the Theotokia. The hymns are arranged according to the Coptic calendar. There are two hymns for each …

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EUCHOLOGION The Euchologion is a book containing the pre-anaphoral and anaphoral parts of the Divine Liturgy as well as several diaconal hymns and prayers used on different occasions. GAWDAT GABRA Tags: Books


FILIOQUE Latin, meaning “and [from] the son.” In the sixth century, Arian barbarians (Goth and Visigoth) invaded the western empire and introduced many heretical dogmas and expressions. In 589 a.d., the Council of Toledo included details in the Nicene Creed concerning the procession of the Holy Spirit from the Father and the Son in order …

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