The declared that he was determined to know nothing and Him crucified. This was the ’s way of emphasizing the extreme importance of the Cross to Christianity. The doctrine of the Atonement is central to all theology. 

Both the Old and make it clear that all human beings are sinners. As our sins are against an infinite, holy God who cannot even look upon sin, atonement must be made in order for us to have fellowship with God. Because sin touches even our best acts, we are incapable of making a sufficient sacrifice. Even our sacrifices are tainted and would require a further sacrifice to cover that blemish, ad infinitum. We have no gift valuable enough, no work righteous enough to atone for our own sins. We are debtors who cannot pay their debts.

In receiving the wrath of the Father on the cross, was able to make atonement for His people. Christ carried, or bore, the punishment for the sins of human beings. He atoned for them by accepting the just punishment due for those sins. The Old Testament covenant pronounced a curse upon any person who broke the law of God. On the cross, Jesus not only took that curse upon Himself, but He became “a curse for us” (Galatians 3:13). He was forsaken by the Father and experienced the full measure of on the cross.

Orthodox Christianity has insisted that the Atonement involves substitution and satisfaction. In taking God’s curse upon Himself, Jesus satisfied the demands of God’s holy justice. He received God’s wrath for us, saving us from the wrath that is to come (1 Thessalonians 1:10).

A key phrase in the regarding the Atonement is the phrase, “in behalf of.” Jesus did not die for Himself, but for us. His suffering was vicarious; He was our substitute. He took our place in fulfilling the role of the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world.

While the Father’s wrath is real, it should be noted that the atonement made was not a case of the Son working against the Father’s will. It is not as if Christ were snatching His people out of the Father’s hand. The Son did not persuade the Father to those whom the Father was loathe to save. On the contrary, both Father and Son willed the of the elect and worked together to bring it to pass. As the wrote, “God was in Christ, reconciling the world to Himself” (2 5:19).


  1. Atonement involves a payment to make amends for a debt.
  2. Human beings cannot atone for their own sins.
  3. Jesus’ perfection qualified Him to make atonement.
  4. fulfilled the curse of the Old Covenant.
  5. ’s atonement was both a work of substitution and satisfaction.
  6. The Father and Son worked in harmony to effect our reconciliation.