Apollinarianism is the dogma instituted by Apollinarius of Laodicea. He was a great friend of Athanasius of Alexandria and rendered him great service, defending orthodoxy against . But under the influence of Arianism, Apollinarius denied the full human nature of Christ by promulgating that the took the place of the nous. Apollinarianism was refuted ably and competently by St. Athanasius the Great at the end of his life, in a huge work of three volumes.

Apollinarianism was criticized strongly by and . The was condemned by the Synod of Alexandria (362 a.d.) and later by the Council of Constantinople (381 a.d.). Since then, his name is mentioned as among the heretics in every ecumenical council.