Properly speaking, this consists of the so-called pseudepigrapha. The Old Testament books called “apocryphal” by Protestants and “deuterocanonical” by Roman Catholics were until recently included in the biblical canon of the Coptic church. Only at the beginning of the twentieth century and by order of (1874-1927) were the following books removed from the canon: Tobit, Judith, the complement of Esther, the Wisdom of Solomon, Ecclesiasticus, the Epistle of , Baruch, the complement of (Susanna and the Three Youths in the Fire) and 1, 2, and 3 Maccabees. These books are normally included in the Coptic versions of the .

The term apokriphon or the more usual apografon had already acquired a pejorative meaning in the 39th Festal Letter of Saint ATHANASIUS, in which the Old Testament Apocrypha of Enoch, Isaiah, and are condemned as heretical. Originally, the Greek word meant simply hidden or secret (cf. 4 Esd. 16:45-48). The condemnation of the Apocrypha, caused no doubt by the extensive use made of them, put a stop to their diffusion in orthodox circles, particularly in the Coptic church. In spite of this, a surprising number of Coptic apocryphal manuscripts have come down to us. They share the following general characteristics: their dates of composition are late as compared to Greek and texts, for the most part being translations from Greek; to a greater or lesser degree they show the effects of Christian reworking; they are normally working originating in, or strongly influenced by, Egyptian Judaism; and they frequently take up motifs and expressions from the ancient Egyptian religion.

In several ways, the Coptic tradition adds significantly to our knowledge of the Old Testament Apocrypha in general. At times it is the only, or the oldest, witness to apocryphal works quoted in early times; or because it is independent of the known Greek or other traditions, it helps to explain the history of the tradition of certain books. In general, it adds elements from particular traditions that enrich those already known from other literatures. In order to emphasize these aspects, the Coptic Old Testament Apocrypha are here considered together with the other Old Testament Apocrypha, grouped according to their genre.

Literature of Enoch

Enoch, the father of Methuselah, “walked with God, and he was not, for God took him” (Gn. 5:24). He was taken up into heaven and there received the revelation of the divine mysteries concerning the people of Israel and the end of the world, thus becoming the most important representative of the apocalyptical revelations. His age, 365 years, gave rise to astronomical and chronological speculations. Thus, from the third century B.C. there appear apocalyptic and astronomical traditions and writings attributed to this patriarch.

The book called 1 Enoch or the Ethiopic Enoch gathers these traditions, some of which were composed originally in Aramaic, as is shown by the fragments of eleven Aramaic manuscripts identified among the Dead Sea Scrolls (Milik, 1976). The collection was translated into Greek and from Greek into Ethiopic toward the year 500, in which version alone the entire collection is preserved (Charles, 1906). It can be divided into five sections, which differ in contents and proceed from different periods:

  1. The Book of Watchers (1-36) relates the fall of the angels and the corruption of mankind (Gn. 6:5-6) and describes the journeys of Enoch to hell and to paradise. It is a product of the period before 175 C.
  2. The Parables of Enoch (37-71) that announce the coming of the great judgment are in three parts called parables or This section is not found in the Qumran fragments, and there is some discussion as to whether the date of composition is pre- Christian.
  3. The Astronomical Book (72-82) promulgates the ancient priestly calendar of 364 days and is prior to 175 C.
  4. The Book of Dreams (83-90) contains a vision of the flood and another vision of the history of the world until the Maccabean period, during which this section was
  5. The Epistle of Enoch (91-108) contains an exhortation to faith, steadfastness, and joy and the Apocalypse of the Weeks, in which the history of the world is described in ten periods, from the creation to the end of the

The Greek version of 1 Enoch was known in Egypt, as is shown by the fragments cited by M. Black (1970). But there was also a Sahidic Coptic version of at least the last section of the book, as can be seen from a fragment found in 1937 in ANTINOOPOLIS (Istituto Papirologico “G. Vitelli,” Florence, Coptica Antinoë, 9), dating from the sixth or seventh century, and containing 1 Enoch 93:3-8 (Donadoni, 1960). A comparison of this Coptic text with the Aramaic texts on the subject shows that it is a very faithful version, the readings of which are to be preferred to those of the Ethiopic version, with which it differs in places. The Coptic version is of help in reconstructing the Greek version (cf. Milik, 1976, pp. 81-82).

The few surviving suggest that although 1 Enoch was known in the Coptic church, it was not widely available. No Coptic manuscript has been discovered of 2 Enoch, or Slavonic Enoch, or Book of the Secrets of Enoch, seemingly composed in Greek in the ninth or tenth century, but transmitted only in sixteenth- or seventeenth-century Slav manuscripts. Nor are there Coptic manuscripts of 3 Enoch, or Enoch, a mystical apocalypse from the medieval period in the opinion of G. G. Scholem. However, H. Odeberg (1973) considers it to date from the second or third century A.D. and suggests that the traditions concerning Enoch-Metraton circulated in Egypt, and were taken over by some Gnostic groups there. This would parallel with the books of Jehu (c. Schmidt, 1892).

In Christian circles in Egypt the figure of Enoch was important in the history of many Jewish traditions (see the Pierpont Morgan Fragments of a Coptic Enoch Apocryphon, Coptic Theological Texts 3, fols. 1-9, found in Hou, ed. W. E. Crum, 1913; A. Pierson in Nickelsburg, ed., 1976; Latin trans. Garitte in Milik, 1976, pp. 100-103). These fragments are extremely deteriorated and consist of very poor quality in a codex of several quires. The order of the folios is a matter of debate.

In Pearson’s arrangement, the text relates in the first place how the Lord received Enoch into heaven where he saw “the mysteries that are hidden in the aeons of the Light.” We next find Enoch in a mountain, where an angel of God (possibly Michael) appears to him and instructs him in the mysteries of the Holy Trinity and the task that he, Enoch, will have in the judgment. Then Enoch’s sister, a prophetess (perhaps Sibylla), appears and informs him that he will be taken up into heaven in the same way as Elijah and Tabitha.

Finally the judgment is described. The special character of this Enoch Apocryphon is based upon the older Jewish apocryphal literature. The ascension and exaltation of Enoch is similar to that shown in the Parables of Enoch and 3 Enoch. His task in the judgment is to act as a scribe of the sins and good deeds of the just, which are then weighed in the balance, and this connects with the Testament of Abraham and other apocryphal works. It might well have been composed in Egypt in the fifth century A.D.

There are also the Sahidic fragments found at Aswan in 1909 containing meager remnants of an Apocryphon apparently devoted to Enoch (, n. 48085, ed. Munier, 1923, pp. 212-15, n. 3.; Latin trans. Garitte in Milik, 1976, pp. 103-104). In these fragments, the role of Enoch as scribe of righteousness is emphasized in a way that is parallel to, though independent of, the Pierpont Morgan fragments. These characteristics of the figure of Enoch appear in other Coptic works, including those of a liturgical nature (cf. C. D. G. Müller, 1962, p. 73; E. A. W. Budge, pp. 345- 46, 909; I. Ballestri and H. Hyvernat, Vol. 43, p. 236).

Testaments of the Patriarchs

In Judaism the “testament” is a well-known literary genre: in a speech uttered before his death, a famous person transfers his spiritual or material legacy to his children or his followers. Examples of this genre can be found in the Old Testament (Dt. 33; Gn. 49) and in the New Testament (Jn. 13-17). The apocryphal literature developed this genre, producing many works that received the name of testaments. The most representative of these is the Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs, relating the testament of each of the twelve sons of Jacob. Each testament contains a prediction about the future of the tribe or of Israel and illustrates a particular virtue or vice, exhorting emulation of the virtuous conduct of the patriarch.

The present form of the collection of Testament 12 has been transmitted in Greek, and is clearly Christian. There is still debate about whether it is a second-century B.C. work written in Hebrew and translated into Greek and interpolated by Christian authors, or whether it is a second-century A.D. work written in Greek by a Christian using existing Jewish material. Among the scrolls of Qumran have been found fragments of various testaments in Aramaic—Levi, Kohat, Amran—and of one in Hebrew—Naphtali, the text of which differs from that of Testament 12 (cf. Milik, 1959). There is also a work called the Testament of Moses (sometimes called the Assumption of Moses) preserved only in a Latin manuscript.

Following Deuteronomy 31-34, it describes the predictions made by Moses concerning the history of Israel; it is considered to date from the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, but to have been reworked in the first decades of the Christian era. Everything seems to show that in primitive or even medieval Judaism, there were many individual testaments that were joined together in Christian or perhaps Jewish circles to form collections used for homiletic purposes.

There are no known Coptic versions of the above-mentioned testaments. However, other testaments of the patriarchs do exist in Coptic. A manuscript of the (DAYR ANBA MAQAR) dating from 962 in the Vatican Library contains the Testament of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob in Bohairic, as well as writings attributed to Athanasius (manuscript no. 61, fols. 163v-98v; ed. Guidi, 1900, pp. 157-80 and 223-64; German trans. Andersson, in Sphinx 6, 1903, pp. 220-36, and 7, 1903, pp. 77-94 and 129-42; French trans. M. Chaine, in M. Delcor, 1973, pp. 186-213; English trans. of Testament of Isaac and Testament of Jacob, S. Gaselle, in Box, 1927, pp. 55-89; trans. of Testament of Abraham, G. Macrae, 1972, pp. 327-40).

The Vatican manuscript is a fine example of how a collection of testaments attributed to the three patriarchs was formed in Christian circles; this collection is referred to in Constitutiones Apostolicae and Priscilianus. The three testaments narrate the death of each of the patriarchs, mixing discourses, narratives, and visions. They begin with the sending of the archangel Michael to announce their deaths. But before the divine plan is fulfilled there is a series of episodes that give a dramatic air to the narratives. They are a mixture of Haggadic legend, moral exhortation, and apocalypse.

Two of the testaments are based on the Testament of Abraham, substantial fragments of which have also been preserved from the fifth century in the Sahidic dialect (Institut fur Altertumskunde, Cologne University, Inv. N. 3221) and in more than twenty Greek manuscripts, the oldest of which dates from the thirteenth century and contains two different recensions of the work: a long recension (A) and a short one (B). Which of the two Greek recensions is the earlier has not been determined. The Coptic version, together with the Arabic and Ethiopic versions, represents an intermediate recension closer to B. In the Coptic text, Abraham asks Michael to be allowed to visit heaven before he dies. There he observes the judgment of a soul after death.

This soul is accused of his own sinful deeds, which are written in a book read by Enoch, the scribe of righteousness. Later comes Abraham’s dialogue with death prior to his leaving this world. The hospitality and mercy of Abraham are emphasized, and in contrast to the Greek recensions, the judge is God and not Abel. In the opinion of M. Delcor, the Testament of Abraham was composed in Egypt by a Hellenist Jew in the first century before or after Christ. Yet, F. Schmidt (1986) considers it to be a document produced in Palestine in the first century A.D. in popular Essene circles (recension B) and later (first half of the second century) revised in Jewish circles in Egypt. Both are mere hypotheses.

The Testament of Isaac has also been preserved in Sahidic in a manuscript dated 894 (, M577, fols. 12v- 15v, ed. Kuhn, 1957, pp. 225-39, trans. Kuhn, 1967, pp. 325-36). It coincides with the Bohairic text, although they appear to be independent translations from the Greek. The Arabic and Ethiopic versions are known, but not the . The Testament of Isaac is more clearly paraenetic (exhortatory) in character than the Testament of Abraham, on which it depends. Isaac instructs the multitude gathered around him on the fulfillment of the law and on their duties as regards prayer.

He is then taken up into heaven, where he observes how the condemned are punished and the just rewarded. A dialogue with Abraham serves to bring to mind the divine favors afforded to those who honor the memory of Isaac. The Testament of Isaac, with its allusions to the Trinity and its Christological expressions, would appear to be a Christian document. But Essene influences can be observed in references to fasting, ritual baths, the holiness of priests, and the river of fire. Thus it is difficult to be exact in details of the history of its redaction.

The Testament of Jacob is known only in Bohairic and in later Arabic and Ethiopic versions. It follows closely the biblical narrative of the patriarch but also includes a visit to heaven and to hell. In the description, there is a clear reference to I Corinthians 2:9.

The Testament of Job appears in Coptic in a fifth-century Sahidic manuscript, the fragments of which also include the Testament of Abraham (Cologne University, Inv. N. 3221; transcription and translation of some fragments by Philonenko, 1968). The Greek text shows no direct dependence on any of the three known Greek manuscripts of this apocryphal work. The oldest of these versions is from the eleventh century (ed. S. P. Brox, in Picard, ed., 1967). Characteristic of this testament is the abundance of hymns and poetic material. The patience and mercy of the patriarch are emphasized. The work has a clearly Jewish character, although it may be the work of a Jewish Christian. The Coptic text is of great help in the understanding of the rhythm of the hymns, which is somewhat confused in the Greek version.

Reference to a Testament of Joshua can be found in a Coptic work on biblical characters, contained in a fragmentary manuscript (ed. Winstedt, 1907-1908, pp. 372-87, and 1908-1909, pp. 389-412).

This testament is an important authority for the story of the destruction of his father’s gods by Abraham. However, the testament could be referring to Joshua 24, and not to any other particular source. The fragments edited by Winstedt contain abundant elements from the apocryphal tradition concerning characters of the Old and New Testaments.


Although the apocalyptic genre is present in many apocryphal works, some of them are expressly given the title apocalypse. They contain the revelation of the mystery of God’s plans concerning the end of the world. The most widely known work is the book of Daniel. But there is an abundance of contemporary and later works, such as the Book of Jubilees, also known as Apocalypse of Moses and Leptogenesis, which narrate God’s revelation to Moses on Mount Sinai in a manner similar to Genesis and Exodus 1-16; the story is presented in periods of forty-nine years, or jubilees.

Written in Hebrew toward the end of the second century B.C., as shown by fragments found in Qumran, the only complete version is the Ethiopic (ed. Dillmann, 1859; trans. Charles, 1902). The name Apocalypse of Moses is also given to a work transmitted in Greek. This deals with the Life of Adam and Eve and is a midrashic work narrating Genesis 1-4, dated to the first century A.D. (ed. Tischendorf, 1866, pp. 1-23). There are some small fragments in Coptic Bohairic on the same subject from the Monastery of Saint Macarius (ed. , 1926, p. 31).

The book of 4 Ezra or Apocalypse of Ezra gathers various materials, among which are the visions of Ezra in Babylon concerning the fate of the people of Israel abandoned in the hands of the gentiles and of the judgment and . This work was compiled toward the end of the first century A.D. and has been transmitted in Latin, Syriac, Ethiopic, Arabic, and Coptic versions. The Latin version is the most important, and it is included, together with other texts attributed to Ezra, as an appendix to the Latin Vulgate under the name of 3 Ezra. Chapters 3-14 belong to 4 Ezra. A small fragment of the Coptic version containing 4 Ezra 13:29-46 has been preserved (ed. and trans. Leipoldt and Violet, 1904, pp. 138-40). This fragment is a noteworthy aid in the reconstruction of the lost Greek text, which is the basis for all the versions. The Syriac Apocolypse of Baruch and the Greek Apocolypse of Ezra, the Coptic versions of which are unknown, show a literary dependence on 4 Ezra.

The Apocalypse of Elijah is extant only in Coptic, and although it deals with similar subjects, is distinct from the Book of Elijah (Sefer Eliyyahu) and other medieval Hebrew works. The apocryphal book of Elias quoted by Origen and others as the source of 1 Corinthians 2:9 does not correspond to any of the pseudepigraphic books of Elias known to us. The Coptic Apocalypse of Elijah has been preserved in four manuscripts dating from the fourth and fifth centuries. One of these is an Akhmimic text, which has been almost completely reconstructed from fragments at present in Paris and Berlin (ed. , 1899, pp. 19-44); three texts are in Sahidic, one of them represented by six folios (ed. Steindorff, 1899, pp. Sahidic 3-14), another by a fragment in the British Library (Or. 7594, ed. Budge, 1912), and the third contains the complete text (Chester-Beatty Papyrus no. 1493; ed. Pietersma, Comstock, and Attridge, 1981).

A small Greek fragment has also been discovered (ed. Pistelli, 1912, p. 16, n. 7; translations: German, Steindorff, 1899; Riessler, 1928, pp. 114-25; W. Schrage, 1980, pp. 192-288; English: Hougton 1959, pp. 43-67 and 176-210, with a transcription of the Coptic text; Pietersma, Comstock, and Attridge, 1980; French: Rosenstiehl, 1972). The Coptic Apocalypse of Elijah begins with a section dedicated above all to fasting and prayer, continues with the narration of wars and calamities in Egypt, and ends with the appearance of the Antichrist, who is opposed by the virgin Tabitha, Elias, Enoch, and the sixty just men.

In a final battle Elias and Enoch slay the Antichrist and Christ appears. Because of the references to the Egyptian wars, it is considered to be a third-century A.D. work written by a Jew, who drew on existing apocalyptic traditions and on Jewish messianic ideas from the first century B.C. to the first century A.D. The present version shows traces of Christian rewriting. The hypothesis put forward by Rosenstiehl concerning a prototype related to Essene circles has not been proved.

One sheet of the manuscript from which Steindorff (1899, pp. Sahidic 1-2) identified the Coptic Apocalypse of Elijah belongs to an Apocalypse of Zephaniah, and nine sheets of the Akhmimic manuscript containing the Coptic Apocalypse of Elijah belong to an Anonymous Apocalypse (Steindorff, 1899, pp. Akhmimic 1-18).

Both apocalypses are so similar that they could well be two recensions, Sahidic and Akhmimic, of the same work. The fragment of the Apocalypse of Zephaniah can be completed from the reference to work with the same name by Clement of Alexandria (Stromata V.IX.77.2) and from a Sahidic fragment of another manuscript (ed. Lefort, 1938, pp. 31-32). An interesting characteristic of the Apocalypse of Zephaniah is the description of the judgment in terms similar to those employed in the Testament of Abraham, the weighing of good and bad deeds on a scale. It is considered to be Egyptian-Jewish in origin together with the Apocalypse of Elias, with which it forms a collection.

The 14th Vision of Daniel or Apocryphal Apocalypse of Daniel is medieval in origin. It has been preserved in Coptic and other versions and contains references to the Fatimid Arabs and the Crusades (ed. Woide, 1799, trans. Macler, 1896, pp. 163-69). Very different in character are some Gnostic works from Nag Hammadi. Although contrary to the Jewish religion, they can be considered as Old Testament apocrypha. The APOCALYPSE OF ADAM, for example, supposes familiarity with Jewish apocalyptic testaments and judgment scenes, and history is presented in periods, as is true also of the PARAPHRASE OF SHEM, which is also independent of Christian traditions.

Lives of the Prophets

This is a genre that originated in Judaism and was developed among . The most famous work is the Ascension of Isaiah. This includes a Jewish nucleus called the of Isaiah, in which the death of the prophet under King Manasses is related. A complete Ethiopic version and fragmentary Greek, Latin, and Slav versions of the Ascension of Isaiah have been preserved (ed. Charles, 1900). The substance of this material is a legend referred to in Hebrews 11:37 and is similar in character to the Teacher of Righteousness of the Qumran scrolls. As a consequence, it has been dated from the first century B.C. to the first century A.D. Parts of two manuscripts are known in Coptic.

One is in Sahidic consisting of two fragments in the University of Louvain collection, which were lost in a fire in 1941 (ed. Lefort, 1938). These fragments contained the Ascension of Isaiah 3:3-6, 9-12, and 11:24-32, 35-40. The other is in Akhmimic and is made up of four fragments belonging to M. Scherling of Leiden (ed. Lefort, 1939) and others now lost (copied and ed. Lacau, 1946). In a fragmentary form they cover practically the whole of the text, which, curiously, was copied on a papyrus scroll. The Ascension of Isaiah was widely known among Copts.

Clearly Jewish in character is the Paralipomena Jeremiou, also known as Rest of the Words of Baruch, written during the second Jewish revolt. It narrates the last deeds of Jeremiah who, according to the apocrypha, accompanies the captives to Babylon, and on their return restores the cult. It has been transmitted in Greek (ed. Harris, 1889; Kraft, 1972) and in Armenian and Ethiopic versions. Dependent on this work, at least so far as the traditions it draws on are concerned, is a Coptic work, the Coptic Apocrypha of Jeremiah in the Captivity of Babylon, also transmitted in an Arabic version.

Evidence for the Coptic version is a codex in the Pierpont Morgan Library (M 578, fols. 97v-130v), fragments in Paris and Vienna that belong to the same manuscript dating from the ninth century, and an eighth-century Fayyumic fragment in the British Library (all ed. Kuhn, 1970). Although there are clear traces of Christian reworking, this Apocryphon is basically Jewish and has important parallels in rabbinic literature.

Didactic and Poetic Literature

Only a few fragments of 4 Maccabees are in Coptic, and these are still being reconstructed (cf. Luchessi, 1981). It would appear to be a good version made from the Greek. This work, erroneously attributed to Josephus, is a philosophical discourse on the preeminence of religious reason over human passions and suffering. In the first century B.C., the Palestinian Jews continued to compose psalms. A collection in Greek of eighteen such psalms attributed to Solomon has come down to us. It is of particular interest, as it shows Jewish messianic ideas in that period. This is the collection known as the Psalms of Solomon (ed. Gebhart, 1895). No Coptic version of them is known. There is, however, a fine penitential psalm in fifteen verses, the Prayer of Manasses, transmitted in Greek in some manuscripts of the Septuagint. In many manuscripts, it appears as an appendix to the psalms, together with other canticles taken from the Bible. It is considered to be the work of a first- or second-century

A.D. Jew and is written in Greek. The Coptic Bohairic version is preserved in many codices of the psalms. The Sahidic version is preserved only in a manuscript in Vienna (K 8706; ed. Till and Sanz, 1939, pp. 90-97).



  • Balestri, I., and H. Hyvernat. Acta Martyrum, 2 vols. CSCO 43, 44. Paris, 1908.
  • Budge, E. A. W. Miscellaneous Coptic Texts in the Dialect of . London, 1915.
  • Charles, R. H. The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament, 2 vols. , 1912.
  • Charlesworth, H., ed. The Pseudepigrapha and Modern Research. Missoula, Mont., 1976.
  • Denis, A.-M. Introduction aux pseudépigraphes grecs d’Ancien Testament. Studia in veteris testamenti pseudepigrapha 1. Leiden, 1970.
  • Diez Macho, A. Apocrifos del Antiquo Testamento, 4 vols. Madrid, 1982-1984.
  • Dillmann, A., ed., and R. Charles, trans. The Book of Jubilees of the Little Genesis. London, 1902.
  • Kraft, R. A., ed. The Methodology of Textual Criticism in Jewish Greek Scriptures with Special Attention to the Problems in Samuel-Kings. Society of Biblical Literature. Texts and Translations 1. Pseudipigrapha Series 1. Missoula, Mont., 1972.
  • Maser, M. Bibliographie zur jüdisch-hellenistischen und intertestamentarischen Literatur: 1900-1970. Texte und Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der altchristlichen Literatur 106/2. Berlin, 1975.
  • Milik, J. T. Ten Years of Discovery in the Wilderness of Judea. Studies in Biblical 26. London, 1959.
  • Müller, C. D. G. Die Bücher der Einsetzung der Erzengel Michael und Gabriel. CSCO 225, Scriptores Coptici 31. Louvain, 1962.
  • Nickelsburg, G. W. E. Jewish Literature Between the Bible and the Misnah. London, 1981.
  • Scholem, G. Jewish Gnosticism, Merkabah, Mysticism and Talmudic Tradition, 2nd ed. New York, 1965.
  • Tischendorf, C., ed. Apocalypses apocryphae. Leipzig, 1866.

General Coptic

  • Grossouw, W. “De apocriefen van het Oude en Nieuwe Testament in de Koptische letterkunde.” Studia Catholica 10 (1934):334- 36; 11 (1934-1935):19-36.
  • Hallock, F. H. “Coptic Apocrypha.” Journal of Biblical Literature 52 (1933):163-64.
  • Orlandi, T. “Gli Apocrifi copti.” Augustinianum 23 (1983):57-71. Schmidt, C. Gnostische Schriften in Koptischer Sprache aus dem
  • Codex Brucianus, herausgegben, übersetzt und bearbeitet. Texte und Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der altchristlichen Literatur 8. Leipzig, 1892.
  • Winstedt, E. O. “Some Coptic Apocryphal Legends.” Journal of Theological Studies 9 (1907-1908):372-87; 10 (1908-1909):389-412.

Books of Enoch

  • Black, M. Apocalypsis Henochii Graece. Pseudepigrapha veteris testamenti Graeca 3. Leiden, 1970.
  • Charles, R. H. The Ethiopic Version of Enoch. Oxford, 1906.
  • Crum, W. E. “Theological Texts from Coptic Papyri.” Anecdota Oxoniensia. Semitic Series 12 (1913):3-11.
  • Donadoni, S. “Un frammento della versione copta del “Libro de Enoch.'” Acta Orientalia 25 (1960):197-202.
  • Lawlor, H. J. “The Book of Enoch in the Egyptian Church.” Hermatema 13 (1904-1905):178-83.
  • Milik, J. T. The Books of Enoch, Aramaic Fragments of Qumran Cave 4. Oxford, 1976.
  • Munier, H. “Mélanges de littérature copte III. Manuscrits coptes sa‘idiques d’Assouan.” Annales du Service des Antiquités de l’Egypt 23 (1923):210-88.
  • Odeberg, H., ed. 3 Enoch or the Hebrew Book of Enoch. Cambridge, 1928. Repr. New York, 1973.
  • Pearson, B. A. “The Pierpont Morgan Fragments of a Coptic Enoch Apocryphon.” In Studies on the Testament of Abraham, ed. George W. E. Nickelsburg, Jr. Missoula, Mont., 1976.

The Testaments

  • Andersson, E. “Abraham’s Vermächtnis aus dem Koptischen übersetzt.” Sphinx 6 (1903):220-36.
  •  . “Isak’s Vermächtnis aus dem Koptischen übersetzt.” Sphinx 7 (1903):77-94.
  •  . “Jakob’s Vermächtnis aus dem Koptischen übersetzt.” Sphinx 7 (1903):129-42.
  • Box, G. H. The Testament of Abraham. London, 1927. With an appendix containing a translation from the Coptic version of the Testaments of Isaac and Jacob by S. Gaselee.
  • Brox, S. P. “Testamentum Iabi,” In Apocrypha Baruchi Graeca, ed. J. C. Picard. Leiden, 1967.
  • Delcor, M. Le Testament d’Abraham. Studia in veteris testamenti pseudepigrapha 2. Leiden, 1973.
  • Guidi, I. “Il Testo copto del Testamento di Abramo.” Rendiconti dell’Academia dei Lincei, ser. 5, no. 9 (1900):157-80.
  •  . “Il Testamento de Isacco e il Testamento di Giacobbe.”
  • Rendiconti dell’Accademia dei Lincei, ser. 5, no. 9 (1900):223- 64.
  • Hofius, O. “Das Zitat 1 Kor. 2.9 und das koptische Testament des Jakob.” Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 66 (1975):140-42.
  • Kuhn, K. H. “The Sahidic Version of the Testament of Isaac.”
  • Journal of Theological Studies 8 (1957):225-39.
  •  . “An English Translation of the Sahidic Version of the Testament of Isaac.” Journal of Theological Studies 18 (1967):325-36.
  • MacRae, G. “The Coptic Testament of Abraham.” In Studies on the Testament of Abraham, ed. G. W. E. Nickelsburg, Jr. Missoula, Mont., 1972.
  • Nagel, P. “Zur sahidischen version des Testament Isaaks.” Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der Martin Luther Universität Halle Wittenberg 12, 3-14 (1963):259-63.
  • Nickelsburg, G. W. E., ed. Studies on the Testament of Abraham.
  • Nordheim, E. von. “Das Zitat von Paulus in 1 Kor. 2.9 und seine Beziehung zum koptischen Testament Jakobs.” Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 65 (1974):112-20.
  • Philonenko, M. “Le Testament de Job.” Semitica 18 (1968):61-63. Schmidt, F. Le Testament grec d’Abraham. Tübingen, 1986.
  • Woide, C. G. Appendix ad editionem Novi Testamenti graeca. Oxford, 1799.

Apocalypse of Elijah

  • Bouriant, U. “Les Papyrus d’Akhmim, fragments des manuscrits en dialecte achmourique et thébain.” Mémoires de la Mission archéologique franÇaise au Caire 1 (1889):260-79.
  • Bousset, W. “Beiträge zur Geschichte der Eschatologie: Die Apokalypse des Elias.” Zeitschrift für Kirchengeschichte 20 (1900):103-112; 275-78.
  • Budge, E. A. T. W. Coptic Biblical Texts in the Dialect of Upper Egypt, pp. 270-71. London, 1912.
  • Houghton, H. P. “The Coptic Apocalypse.” Aegyptus 39 (1959):34- 67; 176-210.
  • McNeil, B. “Coptic Evidence of Jewish Messianic Beliefs (Apocalypse of Elijah 2:5-6).” Rivista degli Studi Orientali 51 (1977):39-45.
  • Nutzel, J. M. “Zum Schicksal des escatologischen Propheten.” Biblische Zeitschrift 20 (1976):59-94.
  • Pietersma, A., S. T. Comstock, and H. A. Attridge. The Apocalypse of Elijah Based on P. Chester Beatty 2018. Texts and Translations 19. Chico, Calif., 1981.
  • Pistelli, E. Papiri graeci et latini, no. 7, p. 16. Florence, 1912. Reissler, P. Altjüdisches Schriftum ausserhalb der Bibel, pp. 114-25. Augsburg, 1928.
  • Rosenstiehl, J.-M. “Un Sobriquet essénien dans l’apocalypse copte d’Elie.” Semitica 15 (1959):97-99.
  •  . L’Apocalypse d’Elie, introduction, traduction et notes. Textes et études pour servir à l’histoire du judaisme intertestamentaire 1. Paris, 1972.
  • Schmidt, C. Der Kolophon des Ms. Orient 7594 des Britischen Museum, eine Untersuchung zur Elias-Apokalypse. Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, pp. 312-21. Berlin, 1925.
  • Schrage, W. Die Elia-Apokalypse. Jüdische Schriften aus hellenistisch-römischer Zeit 5, pt. 3. Gutersloh, 1980.
  • Steindorff, G. Die Apokalypse des Elias, eine unbekannte Apokalypse und Bruchstücke der Sophonias Apokalypse, koptische Texte, Übersetzung, Glossar. Texte und Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der altchristlichen Literatur 17/3a. Leipzig, 1899.
  • Stern, L. “Die koptische Apokalypse des Sophonias: Mit einem Anhang über den untersahidischen Dialect.” Zeitschrift für ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 24 (1886):115-29.
  • Stone, M. E., and J. Strugnell. The Books of Elijah, pts. 1 and 2. Texts and Translations 18. Missoula, Mont., 1979.

Apocalypse of Zephaniah

  • Diebner, B. J. “Literarkritische Probleme der Zephanja- Apokalypse.” Nag Hammadi and Gnosis, ed. R. McL. Wilson. Leiden, 1978.
  •  . “Bemerkungen zum Text des sahidischen und des achmimischen Fragments der sog. Zephanja-Apokalypse.” Dielheimer Blätter zum Alten Testament 14 (1979):54-60.
  • Lefort, L. T. “Coptica Lovaniensia.” 51 (1938):31-32.

Apocalypse of Daniel

  • Macler, F. “Les Apocalypses apocryphes de Daniel.” Revue d’histoire des religions 33 (1896):163-76.
  • , O. F. A. “A Commentary on the XIV Vision of Daniel According to the Coptic Version.” Orientalia Christiana Periodica 32 (1966):394-449.
  •  . “A Judaeo-Byzantine 14th version of Daniel in the Light of a Coptic Apocalypse.” Ekklesia Pharos 60 (1978):645-66.

Apocalypse of Ezra

  • Leipoldt, J., and B. Violet. “Ein saïdisches Bruc hstück des vierten Esrabuches.” Zeitschrift für ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 41 (1904):137-40.

Life of Adam

  • Evelyn-White, H. G. The Monasteries of the Wadi’n Natrun, Vol. 1, pp. 3-6. New York, 1926.

Gnostic Judaism

  • Perkins, P. “Apocalypse of Adam: The Genre and Function of a Gnostic Apocalypse.” Catholic Biblical Quarterly 39 (1977):382-95.
  • Sevrin, J. M. “A propos de la Paraphrase de Sem.” Le Muséon 88 (1975):69-96.

Life of Prophets

  • Amélineau, E. C. Contes et romans de l’Egypte chrétienne, Vol. 2. Paris, 1888.
  • Aranda, G. “Apocrifo de Jeremias sobre la cautividad de Babilonia.” In Apocrifos del Antiquo Testamento, Vol. 2, ed. Alejandro Diez Macho. Madrid, 1982.
  • Ascension of Isaiah, ed. R. H. Charles. London, 1900.
  • Harris, J. R., ed. The Rest of the Words of Baruch. London, 1889. Hyvernat, H. Bibliothecae Pierpont Morgan codices coptici . . . , Vol. 31, pp. 194-260. Rome, 1922.
  • Kuhn, K. H. “A Coptic Jeremiah Apocryphon.” Le Muséon 83 (1970):106-135, 291-326.
  • Lefort, L. T. “Coptica Lovaniensia.” Le Muséon 51 (1938):24-32.
  •  . “Fragments d’apocryphes en copte-akhmimique.” Le Muséon 52 (1939):1-10.
  • Lacau, P. “Fragments de l’Ascension d’Isaie en copte.” Le Muséon 59 (1946):453-67.
  • Marmorstein, A. “Die Quellen des neuen Jeremia-Apocryphons.” Zeitschrift für die neuetestamentliche Wissenschaft 27 (1928):327-37.

Sapiential Literature

  • Gebhardt, O. von. Die Psalmen Solomons, zum ersten Male mit Benutzung der Athashand Schriften und des Codex Casanatensis herausgegeben. Texte und Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der altchristlichen Literatur 13. Leipzig, 1895.
  • Lucchesi, E. “Découverte d’une traduction copte du quatrième livre des Maccabées.” Analecta Bollandiana 99 (1981):302.
  • Ryle, E., and M. R. James. , Psalms of the Pharisees, Commonly Called The Psalms of Solomon. Cambridge, 1891.
  • Till, W., and P. Sanz. Eine -koptische Odenhandschrift. Rome, 1939.
  • Worrel, W. H. “The Odes of Solomon and the Pistis Sophia.”
  • Journal of Theological Studies 13 (1912):29-46.


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