IV, King (an-TIE-ah-cuss) A Syrian king who ruled and from 175 to 163 b.c.e In his efforts to wipe out , Antiochus demanded intense and forbade many practices, including and . He desecrated the in Jerusalem with sacrifices and of . The Maccabees’ rebellion against Antiochus and rededication of the Temple is the story of Hanukkah.

b.c.e n. English The abbreviation for “Before the Common Era.” When the date, often use the religiously neutral b.c.e. in place of b.c. (). This is because Jews don’t believe that is the , although they do measure time according to the year of his birth. For example, a might write, “The destruction of the First Temple was in 586 b.c.e.” 586 b.c.e. is identical to 586 b.c.

Eisenberg, J., Scolnic, E., & Jewish Publication Society. (2001). The JPS dictionary of Jewish words. Over 1000 entries for Jewish and life-cycle events, culture, , the Bible and other sacred texts, and worship. Each entry has a guide and is cross-referenced to related terms.; “A JPS desk reference”–cover. (7). , : Jewish Publication Society.

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