Antiochus IV, King (an-TIE-ah-cuss) A Syrian king who ruled Judea and ancient Israel from 175 to 163 b.c.e In his efforts to wipe out Judaism, Antiochus demanded intense Hellenization and forbade many Jewish practices, including circumcision and Sabbath observance. He desecrated the Temple in Jerusalem with animal sacrifices and statues of Greek gods. The Maccabees’ rebellion against Antiochus and rededication of the Temple is the story of Hanukkah.
b.c.e n. English The abbreviation for “Before the Common Era.” When writing the date, Jews often use the religiously neutral b.c.e. in place of b.c. (Before Christ). This is because Jews don’t believe that Jesus Christ is the Messiah, although they do measure time according to the year of his birth. For example, a Jew might write, “The destruction of the First Temple was in 586 b.c.e.” 586 b.c.e. is identical to 586 b.c.
Eisenberg, J., Scolnic, E., & Jewish Publication Society. (2001). The JPS dictionary of Jewish words. Over 1000 entries for Jewish holidays and life-cycle events, culture, history, the Bible and other sacred texts, and worship. Each entry has a pronunciation guide and is cross-referenced to related terms.; “A JPS desk reference”–cover. (7). Philadelphia, PA: Jewish Publication Society.