Akiva ben (50-135 c.e.) A rabbi and scholar who was considered one of the greatest teachers of Judaism. According to legend, he was a shepherd who began his education late, at the age of 40, but his determination and love of learning proved him a natural scholar. He collected and arranged the whole according to subjects, which laid the foundation for the editing of the . Many of his wise sayings and teachings about learning and are contained in Pirke Avot. When conquerors forbid the study of Torah, Akiva continued teaching. He then supported Shimon bar Kokhba in his messianic revolt against the Romans. This fatal mistake led to Rabbi Akiva’s . His is legendary. As he was tortured to death, he continued to recite the words to the Shema. Akiva died for kiddush ha-, the of God’s name.

c.e. n. English The abbreviation for “Common Era.” When the date, often use the religiously neutral c.e. in place of . ( ), which means “Year of Our Lord.” This is because Jews don’t believe that is the Lord, although they do mark time according to the year of his birth. For example, a might write, “Columbus sailed to in 1492 c.e.” 1492 c.e. is identical to 1492 a.d.

Eisenberg, J., Scolnic, E., & Jewish Publication Society. (2001). The JPS dictionary of Jewish words. Over 1000 entries for Jewish and life-cycle events, culture, , the and other sacred texts, and worship. Each entry has a guide and is cross-referenced to related terms.; “A JPS desk reference”–cover. (3). , : Jewish Publication Society.

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