This renders three words in the NT:

  1. ἀντίδικος, properly an adversary in a lawsuit, and used of an earthly adversary in Mt 5:25, Lk 12:58; 18:3—all these with a legal reference. It is used of an enemy of in 1 S 2:10 (LXX), and in 1 P 5:8 of ‘the enemy,’ ; in this last passage διάδολος is anarthrous, as a name, while ἀντίδικος has the article (see and Satan).
  2. ἀντικείμενος, used in Lk 13:17 of our ’s opponents, and in 21:15 of all adversaries of the , is employed by St. to denote those who oppose the religion, probably in all with the suggestion that the devil is working through them. Such are the ‘adversaries’ of 1 Co 16:9, Ph 1:28; in 1 Ti 5:14 takes the ‘adversary’ to be Satan, the ‘reviler’ (cf. 5:15), or he may be the human enemy as prompted by Satan. In 2 Th 2:4 ‘he that opposeth’ (ὁ ἀντικείμενος) is (q.v.), whose is according to the working of Satan (5:9); and it is interesting to note that the letter of the Churches of and Lyons (Euseb. HE v. i. 5) uses this absolutely of Satan, or of Antichrist, working through the persecutors, and ‘giving us a foretaste of his unbridled activity at his future coming.’
  3. ὑπεναντίος is used in He 10:27 of the adversaries of God, from Christ, probably with reference to Is 26:11, where the has the same word. A similar phrase in Tit 2:8 is ‘he that is of the part,’ an opponent, ὁ ἐξ ἐναντίας. In Col 2:14 the word ὑπεναντίος is used of an inanimate object: ‘the bond … which was contrary to us.’

J. Maclean.


q.v. vide, which see.

HE Ecclesiastica (, etc.).

Maclean, A. J. (1916-1918). Adversary. In J. Hastings (Ed.), Dictionary of the (2 Vols.) (J. Hastings, Ed.) (1:44). New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.

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