This was used by a author about 825 in defence of Christianity in reply to ‘, the pseudonym of a Muslim author. This is one of the most important texts in Arabic in reaction to Islam (analysis and bibliography are in Graf, 1944, Vol. 1, pp. 135-45).

Despite the importance of this text, it would appear that the were not acquainted with it, although they possessed other, rare apologies, such as those of the Nestorians ‘Ammar al-Basri (c. 820) and Hunayn ibn Ishaq (d. 873), or that of the (d. c. 912). The Copts came to know this text only in the nineteenth century, and authors such as the qummus () were able to make use of it owing to the two editions made in Cairo (1885 and 1912) by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge.

, S. J.

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